The Three Stooges

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Three Stooges were an American vaudeville and comedy act of the early to mid–20th century best known for their numerous short subject films. Their hallmark was physical farce and extreme slapstick. In films, the Stooges were commonly known by their first names: "Moe, Larry, and Curly" and "Moe, Larry, and Shemp," among other lineups. They first started as "Ted Healy and his Stooges" which contained Moe, Larry and Shemp. "The Three Stooges" film trio was originally composed of Moe Howard, brother Curly Howard and Larry Fine. Shemp Howard replaced brother Curly, when Curly suffered a debilitating stroke in May 1946.
After Shemp's death from a heart attack in November 1955, he was replaced by comedian Joe Besser, after the use of film actor Joe Palma to film four Shemp-era shorts. Ultimately, Joe DeRita (nicknamed "Curly Joe") replaced Joe Besser by 1958. The act regained momentum throughout the 1960s as popular kiddie fare until Larry Fine's paralyzing stroke in January 1970 effectively marked the end of the act proper. Moe tried unsuccessfully one final time to revive the Stooges with longtime supporting actor Emil Sitka filling in for Larry. Larry ultimately succumbed to a series of additional strokes in January 1975, followed by Moe, who died of lung cancer in May 1975. History Ted Healy and his stooges
The Three Stooges started in 1925 as part of a raucous vaudeville act called 'Ted Healy and His Stooges' (a.k.a. 'Ted Healy and His Southern Gentlemen', 'Ted Healy and His Three Lost Souls' and 'Ted Healy and His Racketeers'—the moniker 'Three Stooges' was never used during their tenure with Healy). In the act, lead comedian Healy would attempt to sing or tell jokes while his noisy assistants would keep "interrupting" him. Healy would respond by verbally and physically abusing his stooges. Brothers Moe and Shemp were joined later that year by violinist-comedian Larry Fine, and Fred Sanborn joined the group as well.[1]In 1930, Ted Healy and His Stooges (including Sanborn) appeared in their first Hollywood feature film, Soup to Nuts, released by Fox Film Corporation. The film was not a critical success, but the Stooges' performances were singled out as memorable, leading Fox to offer the trio a contract minus Healy. This enraged the prickly Healy, who told studio executives that the Stooges were his employees. The offer was withdrawn, and after Howard, Fine and Howard learned of the reason, they left Healy to form their own act, which quickly took off with a tour of the theatre circuit. Healy attempted to stop the new act with legal action, claiming they were using his copyrighted material. There are accounts of Healy threatening to bomb theaters if Howard, Fine and Howard ever performed there, which worried Shemp so much that he almost left the act; reportedly, only a pay raise kept him on board.[2] Healy tried to save his act by hiring replacement stooges, but they were inexperienced and not as well-received as their predecessors.[2] In 1932, with Moe now acting as business manager, Healy reached a new agreement with his former Stooges, and they were booked in a production of Jacob J. Shubert's The Passing Show of 1932. During rehearsals, Healy received a more lucrative offer and found a loophole in his contract allowing him to leave the production.[2] Shemp, fed up with Healy's abrasiveness,[2] decided to quit the act and found work almost immediately, in Vitaphone movie comedies produced in Brooklyn, New York.[1]With Shemp gone, Healy and the two remaining stooges (Moe and Larry) needed a replacement, so Moe suggested his younger brother Jerry Howard. Healy reportedly took one look at Jerry, who had long chestnut red locks and a handlebar mustache, and remarked that he did not look like he was funny.[2] Jerry left the room and returned a few moments later with his head shaved (though his mustache remained for a time), and then quipped "Boy, do I look girly." Healy heard "Curly," and the name stuck.[1] (There are varying accounts as to how the Curly character actually came about.)
In 1933, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) signed Healy and his Stooges to a movie contract. They appeared in feature films and short subjects, either together, individually, or with various combinations of actors. The trio was featured in a series of musical comedy shorts, beginning with Nertsery Rhymes. The short was one of a few shorts to be made with an early two-strip Technicolor process, including one featuring Curly without Healy or the other Stooges, Roast Beef and Movies (1934). The shorts themselves were built around recycled film footage of production numbers cut from MGM musicals, such as Children of Pleasure, Lord Byron of Broadway, and the unfinished March of Time (all 1930), which had been filmed in early Technicolor. Soon, additional shorts followed (sans the experimental Technicolor), including Beer and Pretzels (1933), Plane Nuts (1933), and The Big Idea (1934).[1]Healy and company also appeared in several MGM feature films as comic relief, such as Turn Back the Clock (1933), Meet the Baron (1933), Dancing Lady (1933), Fugitive Lovers (1934), and Hollywood Party (1934). Healy and the Stooges also appeared together in Myrt and Marge for Universal Pictures.[1]In 1934, the team's contract with MGM expired, and the Stooges parted professional company with Healy. According to Moe Howard's autobiography,[3] the Stooges split with Ted Healy in 1934 once and for all because of Healy's alcoholism and abrasiveness. Their final film with Healy was MGM’s 1934 film, Hollywood Party. Both Healy and the Stooges went on to separate successes, with Healy dying under mysterious circumstances in 1937.[1] The Columbia years Moe, Larry and Curly
In 1934, the trio – now officially christened "The Three Stooges" – signed on to appear in two-reel comedy short subjects for Columbia Pictures. In Moe's autobiography, he said they each got $600 per week on a one-year contract with a renewable option;[3] in the Ted Okuda–Edward Watz book The Columbia Comedy Shorts, the Stooges are said to have received $1,000 between them for their first Columbia effort, Woman Haters, and then signed a term contract for $7,500 per film (equal to $123,030 today), to be divided among the trio.[4]Within their first year at Columbia, the Stooges became wildly popular. Realizing this, Columbia Pictures president Harry Cohn used the Stooges as leverage, as the demand for their films was so great that Columbia eventually refused to supply exhibitors with the trio's shorts unless they also agreed to book some of the studio's mediocre B movies. Cohn also saw to it that the Stooges remained ignorant of their popularity. During their 23 years spent at Columbia, the Stooges were never completely aware of their amazing drawing power at the box office. As their contracts with the studio included an open option that had to be renewed every year, Cohn would tell the boys that the short subjects were in decline, which was not a complete fabrication (Cohn's yearly mantra was "the market for comedy shorts is dying out, fellas.") Thinking their days were numbered, the Stooges would sweat it out each and every year, with Cohn renewing their contract for another year at the eleventh hour. This cruel deception kept the insecure Stooges unaware of their true value, resulting in them having second thoughts about asking for a better contract without a yearly option. Cohn's scare tactics worked for all 23 years the Stooges were at Columbia; the team never once asked for — nor were they ever given — a salary increase. It was not until after they stopped making the shorts in December 1957 did Moe learn of Cohn's underhanded tactics, what a valuable commodity the Stooges had been for the ailing studio, and how many millions more the act could have earned.[4]The Stooges were required to churn out up to eight short films per year within a 40-week period; for the remaining 12 or so weeks, they were free to pursue other employment. Usually, the Stooges would either spend this time with their families or tour the country promoting their live act.[5] The Stooges appeared in 190 film shorts and five features while at Columbia. Del Lord directed more than three dozen Stooge films; Jules White directed dozens more, and his brother Jack White directed several under the pseudonym "Preston Black". Silent film star Charley Chase also shared directorial responsibilities with Lord and White, with more than pleasing results.[4]The Stooge films made between 1935-1941 captured the team at the peak, according to film historians Ted Okuda and Edward Watz, authors of The Columbia Comedy Shorts. Nearly every film produced became a classic in its own right. 1935's Hoi Polloi utilized the classic premise of a stuffy professor waging a bet that he can transform the uncultured trio into refined gentlemen; the plotline worked so well that it was reused twice, as Half-Wits Holiday and Pies and Guys. Three Little Beers featured the team employed at a brewery who then run amuck on a local golf course to win prize money. 1936's Disorder in the Court is considered a quintessential entry in the series, featuring the team as star witnesses to a murder trial. 1938's Violent is the Word for Curly was a quality Chase-directed short that featured the musical interlude, "Swingin' the Alphabet". In the 1940 film A Plumbing We Will Go, the trio were cast as inadvertent plumbers who nearly destroy a socialite's mansion, causing water to exit every appliance in the home.[4] Other entries of the era, like Uncivil Warriors, A Pain in the Pullman, False Alarms, Grips, Grunts and Groans, The Sitter Downers, Dizzy Doctors, Tassels in the Air, We Want Our Mummy, Nutty but Nice, An Ache in Every Stake and In the Sweet Pie and Pie are considered among the team's finest work.[4]With the onset of World War II, the Stooges released several entries that poked fun at the rising Axis powers. You Nazty Spy! and its sequel I'll Never Heil Again burlesqued Hitler and the Nazis at a time when America was still neutral and resolutely isolationist. Moe is cast as "Moe Hailstone", an Adolf Hitler-like character, with Curly playing a Hermann Goering character (replete with medals), and Larry a Ribbentrop-type ambassador. Though revered by Stooge fans, as well as the Stooges themselves (Moe, Larry and director Jules White considered You Nazty Spy! their best film),[6] the efforts indulged in a deliberately formless, non-sequitur style of verbal humor that was not the Stooges' forte, according to Okuda and Watz. Other wartime entries, like They Stooge to Conga, Higher Than a Kite, Back From the Front, Gents Without Cents and the controversial The Yoke's on Me have their moments, but taken in bulk, the wartime films are decidedly substandard.[4] No Dough Boys ranks as the best of these farces. The team, made up as Japanese soldiers for a photo shoot, is mistaken for genuine saboteurs by a Nazi ringleader (Vernon Dent). The highlight of the film features the Stooges engaging in nonsensical gymnastics (the real spies are renowned acrobats) for a skeptical group of enemy agents.[4]The Stooges made occasional guest appearances in feature films, though generally they stuck to short subjects. Columbia offered theater owners an entire program of two-reel comedies (15 to 25 titles annually) featuring such stars as Buster Keaton, Andy Clyde, Charley Chase, and Hugh Herbert, but the Three Stooges shorts were the most popular of all.[2]The World War II era also brought on rising production costs that resulted in a reduced number of elaborate gags and outdoor sequences, Del Lord's stock and trade; as such, the quality of the teams' films (particularly those directed by Lord) began to slip after 1942. According to Okuda and Watz, entries like Loco Boy Makes Good, What's the Matador?, Sock-A-Bye Baby, I Can Hardly Wait and A Gem of a Jam are considered to be less quality work than previous efforts, and in a different class than their earlier films.[4] The 1943 film Spook Louder, a remake of Mack Sennett's The Great Pie Mystery, is often cited as their worst film. The story of a phantom pie-thrower (later revealed to be the detective on the case) is repetitious and relying on the same jokes, which many Stooge fans consider to be far less humorous than their past work.[4] Three Smart Saps, a film considered to be an improvement, features a reworking of a routine from Harold Lloyd's The Freshman, in which Curly's loosely basted suit begins to come apart at the seams while he is on the dance floor.[4]Film critics and stooge fans alike have cited Curly as the most popular member of the team.[2] His childlike mannerisms and natural comedic charm (he had no previous acting experience) made him a hit with audiences, particularly children and women (the latter usually finding the trio's humor juvenile and uncouth). The fact that Curly had to shave his head for the act led him to feel unappealing to women. To mask his insecurities, Curly ate and drank excessively and caroused whenever the Stooges made personal appearances, which was approximately seven months out of the year. His weight ballooned in the 1940s, and his blood pressure was dangerously high.[1] His wild lifestyle and constant drinking eventually caught up with him in 1945, and his performances suffered. In his last dozen shorts (ranging from 1945's If a Body Meets a Body through 1947's Half-Wits Holiday), he was seriously ill, struggling to get through even the most basic scenes.[2]It was during the final day of filming Half-Wits Holiday on May 6, 1946 that Curly suffered a debilitating stroke on the set, ending his 14-year career. Curly's health necessitated a temporary retirement from the act, and while the Stooges hoped for a full recovery, Curly never starred in a film again, except for one brief cameo appearance in the third film after Shemp returned to the trio, Hold That Lion! It was the only film that contained all four of the original Stooges (the three Howard brothers and Larry) on screen simultaneously; Jules White recalled Curly visiting the set one day, and White had him do this bit for fun. (Curly's cameo appearance was recycled in the 1953 remake Booty and the Beast.)[3] In 1949, Curly was supposed to play a cameo role in the Stooge comedy Malice in the Palace, but he was physically unable to perform. His chef role was played by Larry.[1] Shemp returns
Moe Howard turned to his older brother Shemp Howard to take Curly's place. Shemp, however, was hesitant to rejoin the Stooges, as he had a successful solo career at the time of Curly's untimely illness. However, he realized that Moe and Larry's careers would be finished without the Stooge act. Shemp wanted some kind of assurance that his rejoining was indeed temporary, and that he could leave the Stooges once Curly recovered. Unfortunately, Curly remained gravely ill after 1950, dying of a cerebral hemorrhage caused by additional strokes on January 18, 1952.[1]Shemp appeared with the Stooges in 76 more shorts and a quickie Western comedy feature titled Gold Raiders. Upon Shemp's return, the quality of the films picked up; the last few Curly efforts had been marred by his sluggish performances. Entries like Out West, Squareheads of the Round Table, and Punchy Cowpunchers proved that there was life after Curly, and that Shemp could easily hold his own. Though some say he lacked his younger brother's childlike charisma, Shemp was a gifted, professional comedian. More often than not, his astute gift of comedic timing buoys weak material. In fact, one the finest entries in the series, Brideless Groom, was made during this period.[4]Another interesting plus from the Shemp era was that Larry was given more time on screen. Throughout most of the Curly era, Larry was relegated to a background role, only being called upon to break up a potential scuffle between Moe and Curly. By the time Shemp rejoined the Stooges, Larry was allotted equal footage, even becoming the focus of several films (Fuelin' Around, He Cooked His Goose).[4]During this period, Moe, Larry, and Shemp made a pilot for a Three Stooges television show called Jerks of All Trades in 1949. The series was never picked up, although the pilot is currently in the public domain and is available on home video, as is an early television appearance from around the same time on a vaudeville-style comedy series, Camel Comedy Caravan, originally broadcast live on CBS-TV on March 11, 1950 and starring Ed Wynn. Also available commercially is a kinescope of Moe, Larry, and Shemp's appearance on The Frank Sinatra Show, broadcast live over CBS-TV on January 1, 1952. Frank Sinatra was reportedly a big fan of the Stooges and slapstick comedy in general. On this broadcast, the Stooges are joined by one of their longtime stock-company members, Vernon Dent, who plays "Mr. Mortimer", a party-goer who requests a drink. The Stooges oblige with disastrous results.[1]Columbia's short-subject division downsized in 1952. Producer Hugh McCollum was discharged and director Edward Bernds resigned out of loyalty to McCollum, leaving only Jules White to both produce and direct the Stooges' remaining Columbia comedies. Almost overnight, the quality of the Stooge shorts declined. Production was significantly faster, with the former four-day filming schedules now tightened to two or three days. In another cost-cutting measure, White would create a "new" Stooge short by borrowing footage from old ones, setting it in a slightly different storyline, and filming a few new scenes often with the same actors in the same costumes. White was initially very subtle when recycling older footage: he would reuse only a single sequence of old film, re-edited so cleverly that it was not easy to detect. The later shorts were cheaper and the recycling more obvious, with as much as 75% of the running time consisting of old footage. White came to rely so much on older material that he could film the "new" shorts in a single day. Plus, any new footage filmed in order to link older material suffered from White's wooden directing and his penchant for telling his actors how to act. Shemp in particular disliked working with White.[4]Three years after Curly's death, Shemp died of a sudden heart attack at age 60 on November 22, 1955. Recycled footage of Shemp, combined with new footage utilizing Columbia supporting player Joe Palma as Shemp's double (only filmed from the back), were used to complete the last four films originally planned with Shemp: Rumpus in the Harem, Hot Stuff, Scheming Schemers, and Commotion on the Ocean.[1] Joe Besser replaces Shemp
Joe Besser replaced Shemp in 1956, appearing in 16 shorts. Besser, noting how one side of Larry Fine's face seemed "calloused",[7] had a clause in his contract specifically prohibiting him from being hit too hard (though this restriction was later lifted). Besser was the only "third" Stooge that dared to hit Moe back in retaliation and get away with it; Larry Fine was also known to hit Moe on occasion, but always with serious repercussions. "I usually played the kind of character who would hit others back," Besser recalled.[8]At that time, the Stooge films began to resemble sitcoms. Sitcoms, though, were now available for free. Television was the new popular medium, and by the time Besser joined the act, the Stooges were generally considered throwbacks to an obsolete era. The Besser films have long been considered the worst of the Stooge films. Though Besser was a very funny comedian (he was very popular on The Abbott and Costello Show), his whining mannerisms ("Not so harrrrd!") did not quite jell with the roughneck Stooge humor. However, Besser was not solely to blame for the lackluster quality of these final entries: the scripts were tired rehashes of earlier efforts (7 of the 16 films were remakes) and Moe and Larry's performances lacked energy. Both comedians were growing older, and could no longer perform pratfalls and physical comedy as they once had.[4]The final Stooge films had few bright moments, according to Okuda and Watz: Hoofs and Goofs, A Merry Mix Up, Rusty Romeos and Oil's Well That Ends Well are amusing, while the musical Sweet and Hot (long detested by fans) deserves some credit for straying from the norm. Muscle Up a Little Closer most resembled the sitcoms of the era, while Pies and Guys was a scene-for-scene remake of both Hoi Polloi and Half-Wits Holiday. The space craze also took hold of the American public at the time, resulting in three entries focusing on space travel: Space Ship Sappy, Outer Space Jitters and Flying Saucer Daffy.[4]The inevitable occurred soon enough. Columbia was the last studio still producing shorts, and the market for such films had all but dried up. As a result, the studio opted not to renew the Stooges' contract when it expired in late December 1957. The final comedy produced was Flying Saucer Daffy, filmed on December 19–20, 1957.[5] Several days later, the Stooges were unceremoniously fired from Columbia Pictures after 24 years of making low-budget shorts. Joan Howard Maurer, daughter of Moe, wrote the following in 1982:
The boys' careers had suddenly come to an end. They were at Columbia one day and gone the next—no 'Thank yous,' no farewell party for their 24 years of dedication and service and the dollars their comedies had reaped for the studio. Moe Howard recalled that a few weeks after their exit from Columbia, he drove to the studio to say goodbye to several studio executives when he was stopped by a guard at the gate (obviously, not a Stooges fan) and, since he did not have the current year's studio pass, was refused entry. For the moment, it was a crushing blow.[1]Although the Stooges were no longer working for Columbia, the studio had enough completed films on the shelf to keep releasing new comedies for another 18 months, and not in the order they were produced. The final Stooge release, Sappy Bull Fighters, did not reach theaters until June 4, 1959. With no active contract in place, Moe and Larry discussed plans for a personal appearance tour; meanwhile, Besser's wife had a minor heart attack, and he preferred to stay local, leading him to withdraw from the act. For the first time in nearly 30 years, the Stooges hit a dead end.[1] The comeback: Larry, Moe and Curly Joe
Seeing the success of how television, in its early years, allowed movie studios to unload a backlog of short films thought unmarketable, the Stooge films seemed perfect for the burgeoning genre. ABC television had even expressed interest as far back as 1949, purchasing exclusive rights to 30 of the trio's shorts.[9] However, the success of television revivals for such names as Laurel and Hardy, Woody Woodpecker, Tom and Jerry and the Our Gang series in the late 1950s led Columbia to cash in again on the Stooges. In January 1958, Columbia's television subsidiary Screen Gems offered a package consisting of 78 Stooge shorts (mainly from the Curly era), which were well received.[10] Almost immediately, an additional 40 shorts hit the market, and by 1959, all 190 Stooge shorts were airing regularly. Due to the massive quantity of Stooge product available for broadcast, the films were broadcast Monday through Friday, leading to heavy exposure aimed squarely at children. This led parents to watch alongside of their offspring, and before long, Howard and Fine found themselves in high demand.[4] Moe quickly signed movie and burlesque comic Joe DeRita for the "third Stooge" role; DeRita adopted first a crew cut and then a completely shaven hairstyle and became "Curly Joe" because of his resemblance to the original Curly Howard (also to make it easier to distinguish him from Joe Besser, the earlier Stooge called Joe).
This Three Stooges lineup went on to make a series of popular full-length films from 1959 to 1965, most notably Have Rocket, Will Travel, The Three Stooges Meet Hercules and The Three Stooges Go Around the World in a Daze. The films were aimed at the kiddie-matinee market, and most were farce outings in the Stooge tradition, with the exception of Snow White and the Three Stooges, a children's fantasy in Technicolor. They also appeared as firemen (the role that helped make them famous in Soup to Nuts) in the film It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World. Throughout the 1960s, The Three Stooges were one of the most popular and highest-paid live acts in America.[8]The Stooges also tried their hand at another weekly television series in 1960 titled The Three Stooges Scrapbook. Filmed in color and with a laugh track, the first episode, "Home Cooking," featured the boys rehearsing for a new television show. Like Jerks of All Trades, the pilot did not sell. However, Norman Maurer was able to reuse the footage (reprocessed in black and white) for the first 20 minutes of the feature film The Three Stooges in Orbit.[1]The trio also filmed 41 short comedy skits for The New Three Stooges, which features a series of 156 animated cartoons produced for television. The Stooges appeared in live-action color footage, which preceded and followed each animated adventure in which they voiced their respective characters.[1] Final years
In 1969, the Three Stooges filmed a pilot episode for a new TV series entitled Kook's Tour, a combination travelogue-sitcom that had the "retired" Stooges traveling around the world, with the episodes filmed on location.[1]On January 9, 1970, during production of the pilot, Larry suffered a paralyzing stroke, ending his acting career, as well as plans for the television series.[1]Plans were in the works for longtime foil Emil Sitka to replace Larry as the "Middle Stooge" in 1971, but nothing ever came of that idea other than the proposed publicity still reproduced here.[1] Three years later, just before Christmas of 1974, Larry Fine suffered yet another stroke at the age of 72 and four weeks later, suffered a more massive one. Slipping into a coma, he died a week later of a stroke-induced cerebral hemorrhage on January 24, 1975.[1]Devastated by his friend's death, Moe nevertheless decided that the Three Stooges should continue. Several movie ideas were considered, one of which according to critic and movie historian Leonard Maltin, (who also uncovered a pre-production photo) was entitled Blazing Stewardesses. Unfortunately, before pre-production could begin, after a lifetime of smoking, Moe fell ill from lung cancer, and died three months later on May 4, 1975, finally putting to rest the last original surviving member of one of the most famous comedy troupes of the 20th Century.[3]However, Blazing Stewardesses, the last film idea that the Three Stooges had ever seriously considered, was eventually made, starring the last of the surviving Ritz Brothers comedy troupe and released to moderate acclaim later that year.[1]Joe DeRita continued to perform live into the mid-1970s with Mousie Garner and Frank Mitchell as "The New 3 Stooges" enjoying recognition well into old age, before retiring by 1979.
Of the remaining “original-replacement” Stooges, Joe Besser died of heart failure on March 1, 1988, followed by Joe DeRita of pneumonia on July 3, 1993. Legacy and perspective
Some 50 years after their last short film was released, the Three Stooges remain wildly popular with audiences. Their films have never left the television airwaves since first appearing in 1958, and they continue to delight old fans while attracting a new legion of fervent admirers. A hard-working group of working-class comedians who were never the critic's darlings, the durable act endured several personnel changes in their careers that would have permanently sidelined a less persistent act.[4] The Stooges would not have lasted as long as they did as a unit without Moe Howard's guiding hand.[1]The Ted Okuda/Edward Watz-penned book The Columbia Comedy Shorts puts the Stooges legacy in critical perspective:
Many scholarly studies of motion picture comedy have overlooked the Three Stooges entirely—and not without valid reasoning. Aesthetically, the Stooges violated every rule that constitutes "good" comedic style. Their characters lacked the emotional depth of Charlie Chaplin and Harry Langdon; they were never as witty or subtle as Buster Keaton. They were not disciplined enough to sustain lengthy comic sequences; far too often, they were willing to suspend what little narrative structure their pictures possessed in order to insert a number of gratuitous jokes. Nearly every premise they have employed (spoofs of westerns, horror films, costume melodramas) has been done to better effect by other comedians. And yet, in spite of the overwhelming artistic odds against them, they were responsible for some of the finest comedies ever made. Their humor was the most undistilled form of low comedy; they were not great innovators, but as quick laugh practitioners, they place second to none. If public taste is any criterion, the Stooges have been the reigning kings of comedy for over fifty years.[4]Beginning in the 1980s, the Stooges finally began to receive long-overdue critical recognition. More often than not, the praise was directed at Curly, usually at the expense of his castmates, most especially Shemp. With the advent of cable television and the burgeoning home video market, the praise was eventually spread more evenly throughout the team. Critics began to realize that Moe and Larry were gifted performers; though less flamboyant than Curly, they were by no means less talented. Curly was indeed brilliant and a one-of-a-kind, but taken for long periods of time, he could also be irritating and exhausting without Moe and Larry present to provide a counterbalance. This balance would be handled better after Shemp returned to the act, with Larry in particular receiving more screen time.[4] The release of nearly all their films on DVD by 2010 has allowed critics of Joe Besser and Joe DeRita—often the recipients of significant fan backlash—to appreciate the unique style of comedy both comedians brought to the Stooges. In addition, the DVD market in particular has allowed fans to view the entire Stooge film corpus as distinct periods in their long, distinguished career instead of comparing one Stooge to the other (the Curly vs. Shemp debate continues to this day[11][12][13]).
The team appeared in 220 films. In the end, it is the durability of the 190 timeless short films the Stooges made at Columbia Pictures that acts as an enduring tribute to the comedy team. Their continued popularity worldwide has proven to even the most skeptical critics that their films—quite simply—are funny.[4] American television personality Steve Allen went on record in the mid-1980s saying "though they never achieved widespread critical acclaim, they achieved exactly what they had always intended to do: they made people laugh."[14] Line-ups
Years    Moe    Shemp    Larry    Curly    Joe    Curly Joe
Moe Howard Real Name: Moses Harry Horwitz Born: June 19, 1897 Died: May 4, 1975 (aged 77) Stooge years: 1922–1975
Larry Fine Real Name: Louis Feinberg Born: October 5, 1902 Died: January 24, 1975 (aged 72) Stooge years: 1925–1971
Curly Howard ("Curly") Real Name: Jerome Lester Horwitz Born: October 22, 1903 Died: January 18, 1952 (aged 48) Stooge years: 1932–1946
Shemp Howard Real Name: Samuel Horwitz Born: March 4, 1895 Died: November 22, 1955 (aged 60) Stooge years: 1922–1932, 1946–1955
Joe Besser ("Joe") Born: August 12, 1907 Died: March 1, 1988 (aged 80) Stooge years: 1956–1958
Joe DeRita ("Curly Joe") Real Name: Joseph Wardell Born: July 12, 1909 Died: July 3, 1993 (aged 83) Stooge years: 1958–1975 Shorts
Main article: The Three Stooges filmography
The Three Stooges appeared in 220 films throughout their career. Of those 220, 190 short films were made for Columbia Pictures between 1934 and 1959, for which the trio are best known. Their contract was extended each year from 1934 until the final one expired on December 31, 1957. The last 8 of the 16 shorts with Joe Besser were released soon afterward. C3 Entertainment, Inc.
Throughout their career, Moe acted as both their main creative force and business manager. Comedy III (C3) was formed by Moe, Larry and Joe DeRita in 1959 to manage all business and merchandise transactions for the team. C3 was basically in the background, with Moe's son-in-law Norman Maurer managing the comedy teams' film interests under Normandy Productions, and merchandising affairs under Norman Maurer Productions (NMP). Norman Maurer died of cancer in 1986.
In 1994, the heirs of Larry Fine and Joe DeRita filed a breach-of-contract lawsuit against Moe's family, particularly Joan Howard Maurer and her son Jeffrey, who had inherited the NMP/Normandy business. The lawsuit alleged that the Howards had cheated the DeRita and Fine families out of their share of royalties. Howard was ordered to pay $2.6 million in damages; $1.6 million was for compensatory damages to Jean DeRita, while the remaining $1 million was divided between four of Fine's grandchildren. The Fine and DeRita families were represented by California attorney Bela G. Lugosi. Jr.[15]The resulting 1994 lawsuit lead to the reestablishment of C3 as a three-way interest of Fine/[Moe]Howard/DeRita. The DeRita heirs received the proxy to the Howard share, giving them majority control on the company's management. Joe DeRita's stepsons, Robert and Earl Benjamin, became the senior management of C3, with Lugosi, Jr. serving as an executive board member for several years. The Benjamins later incorporated the company, and C3 is currently the owner of all Three Stooges trademarks and merchandising. Larry's grandson Eric Lamond is the representative of the Fines' one-third interest in the company.[16]Since 1995, C3 authorized and provided the services of veteran actors Jim Skousen, Alan Semok, and Dave Knight (as Moe, Larry, and Curly respectively) for numerous "personal appearances" by the Stooge characters for a variety of merchandising and promotional events. This latter day trio has also provided voices for the characters in a variety of radio spots, merchandising tie-ins, and most recently for the first new Three Stooges short in fifty years. A CGI animation by Famous Frames Mobile Interactive, a first-wave "new media" company, entitled The Grate Debate, has Moe, Larry and Curly running for President. Television broadcasts and rights issues
A handful of Three Stooges shorts first aired on television in 1949, on the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) network. It was not until 1958 that Screen Gems packaged 78 shorts for national syndication; the package was gradually enlarged to encompass the entire library of 190 shorts. In 1959, KTTV in Los Angeles purchased the Three Stooges films for air, but by the early 1970s, rival station KTLA began airing the Stooges films, keeping them in the schedule until early 1994. The Family Channel (now ABC Family) ran the shorts as part of their Stooge TV block from February 19, 1996 to January 2, 1998. In the late 1990s, AMC had held the rights to the Three Stooges shorts, originally airing them under the Stooges Playhouse block, but replacing it in 1999 with N.Y.U.K. (New Yuk University of Knuckleheads). Featuring host Leslie Nielsen in the form of a college instructor, the block aired several shorts often grouped by a theme, such as similar schtick used in different films. Although the block was discontinued after AMC revamped their format in 2002, the network still ran Stooges shorts occasionally. The AMC run ended when Spike TV picked them up in 2004, airing them in their Stooges Slap-Happy Hour. By 2007, the network had discontinued the block. Although Spike did air Stooges shorts for a brief period of time after the block was canceled, as of late April 2008, Three Stooges has disappeared from the network's schedule entirely. The Three Stooges returned on December 31, 2009 on AMC, starting with the "Countdown with the Stooges" New Year's Eve marathon. AMC planned to put several episodes on their website in 2010.
Since the 1990s Columbia and its television division's successor, Sony Pictures Television, has preferred to license the Stooges shorts to cable networks, precluding the films from being shown on local broadcast TV. Two stations in Chicago and Boston, however, signed long-term syndication contracts with Columbia years ago and have declined to terminate them. Thus, WMEU-CA in Chicago currently airs all 190 Three Stooges shorts on Stooge-a-Palooza, hosted by Rich Koz, and WSBK-TV in Boston airs Stooge shorts and feature films. KTLA in Los Angeles dropped the shorts in 1994, but brought them back in 2007 as part of a special retro-marathon commemorating the station's 60th anniversary. Since that time, the station's original 16mm Stooges film prints have aired occasionally as part of mini-marathons on holidays. Antenna TV, a network broadcasting on the digital subchannels of local broadcast stations (owned by Tribune Broadcasting, who also owns KTLA), began airing the Stooges shorts upon the network's January 1, 2011 launch, which run in multi-hour blocks on weekends; most of the Three Stooges feature films are also broadcast on the network, through Antenna TV's distribution agreement with Sony Pictures Entertainment (whose Columbia Pictures subsidiary released most of the films).
Some of the Stooge films have been colorized by two separate companies. The first colorized DVD releases, distributed by Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, were prepared by West Wing Studios in 2004. The following year, Legend Films colorized the public domain shorts Malice in the Palace, Sing a Song of Six Pants, Disorder in the Court and Brideless Groom. Disorder in the Court and Brideless Groom also appears on two of West Wing's colorized releases. In any event, the Columbia-produced shorts (aside from the public domain films) are handled by Sony Pictures Entertainment, while the MGM Stooges shorts are owned by Warner Bros. via their Turner Entertainment division. Sony offers 21 of the shorts on their web platform Crackle, along with eleven Minisodes. Meanwhile, the rights to the Stooges' feature films rests with the studios that originally produced them (Columbia/Sony for the Columbia films, and 20th Century Fox for the Fox films). Home video release and public reception
Between 1984 and 1985, RCA Columbia Pictures Home Video released a total of thirteen Three Stooges volumes on VHS, Beta and Laserdisc, each containing three shorts. These titles were later reissued on VHS by its successor, Sony Pictures Entertainment, between 1995 and 1997, with a DVD reissue between 2000 and 2004. The Three Stooges Collection
On October 30, 2007, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment released a two-disc DVD set entitled The Three Stooges Collection, Volume One: 1934–1936. The set contains shorts from the first three years the Stooges worked at Columbia Pictures, marking the first time ever that all 19 shorts were released in their original theatrical order to DVD. Additionally, every short was remastered in high definition, a first for the Stooge films. Previous DVD releases were based on themes (wartime, history, work, etc.), and sold poorly. Fans and critics alike praised Sony for finally giving the Stooges the proper DVD treatment. One critic states "the Three Stooges on DVD has been a real mix'n match hodgepodge of un-restored titles and illogical entries. This new...boxset...seems to be the first concerted effort to categorize their huge body of work chronologically with many shorts seeing the digital light for the first time."[17] critic added "finally, the studio knuckleheads got it right! The way that the Three Stooges have been presented on home video has been a real slap in the face and poke in the eye to fans. They’ve been anthologized, colorized, and public domain-ed, as their shorts have been released and re-released in varying degrees of quality. Highly recommended."[18] Critic James Plath of added, "Thank you, Sony, for finally giving these Columbia Pictures icons the kind of DVD retrospective that they deserve. Remastered in High Definition and presented in chronological order, these short films now give fans the chance to appreciate the development of one of the most successful comedy teams in history."[19]The chronological series proved very successful and wildly popular, and Sony wasted little time preparing the next set for release. Volume Two: 1937–1939 was released on May 27, 2008, followed by Volume Three: 1940–1942 three months later on August 26, 2008. Demand exceeded supply, proving to Sony that they had a hit on their hands. In response, Volume Four: 1943–1945 was released on October 7, 2008, a mere two months after its predecessor.[20] The global economic crisis slowed down the release schedule after Volume Four, and Volume Five: 1946–1948 was belatedly released on March 17, 2009. Volume Five is the first in the series to feature Shemp Howard with the Stooges.[21] Volume Six: 1949–1951 was released June 16, 2009,[22] and Volume Seven: 1952–1954 was released on November 10, 2009.[23]The eighth and final volume was released on June 1, 2010, bringing the series to a close. For the first time in history, all 190 Three Stooges short subjects became available to the public, uncut and unedited. Music
■    Several instrumental tunes were played over the opening credits at different times in the production of the short features. The most commonly used themes were:
■    The verse portion of the Civil War era song "Listen to the Mockingbird", played in a comical way, complete with sounds of birds and such. This was first used in Pardon My Scotch, their ninth short film, in 1935. (Prior to that comedic short, the opening theme varied and was typically connected to the storyline in some fashion.)
■    "Three Blind Mice", beginning in 1939 as a slow but straightforward presentation (dubbed the "sliding strings" version), often breaking into a "jazzy" style before ending. In mid-1942, another more driving version, complete with accordion was played fast all the way through.
■    The Columbia short subject Woman Haters was done completely in rhyme, mostly recited (not sung), in rhythm with a Jazz-Age underscore running throughout the film, but with some key lines sung. It was sixth in a Musical Novelties short subject series, and appropriated its musical score from the first five films. The memorable “My Life, My Love, My All,” was originally “At Last!” from the film Um-Pa.
■    "Swinging the Alphabet" (a.k.a. B-A-bay, B-E-be, B-I-bicky-bi…) from Violent Is the Word for Curly is perhaps the best-known song performed by the Stooges on film.
■    The “Lucia Sextet” (Chi mi frena in tal memento?), from the opera Lucia di Lammermoor by Gaetano Donizetti (announced by Larry as “the Sextet from Lucy”), is played on a record player and lip-synched by the Stooges in Micro-Phonies. The same melody re-appears in Squareheads of the Round Table as the tune of “Oh, Elaine, can you come out tonight?”. Micro-Phonies also includes the Johann Strauss II waltz “Voices of Spring” ("Frühlingsstimmen") Op. 410. Another Strauss waltz, "The Blue Danube", is featured in Ants in the Pantry and Punch Drunks.
■    The song “Fredric March” (named after the actor) was a favorite of director Jules White; it appeared in at least seven different Columbia shorts:
■    Termites of 1938 - the Stooges "play" this song on a violin, flute, and string bass at a dinner party in an attempt to attract mice.
■    Dutiful But Dumb - Curly is hidden inside a floor-standing radio, and plays the song on a modified harmonica.
■    Three Little Twirps - heard as background music at the circus while Moe and Curly sell tickets.
■    Idle Roomers - Curly plays the song on a trombone to calm a wolf man.
■    Gents Without Cents - three girls perform acrobatics on stage while this song is playing
■    Gents in a Jam - Shemp and Moe have a problem with a radio that will not stop playing this song
■    Pardon My Backfire - the song plays on a car radio
■    The Moe–Larry–Curly Joe lineup of the Stooges recorded several musical record albums in the early 1960s. Most of their songs were adaptations of nursery rhymes. Among their more popular recordings were "Making a Record" (a surreal trip to a recording studio built around the song "Go Tell Aunt Mary"), "Three Little Fishes", "All I Want for Christmas Is My Two Front Teeth", "Wreck the Halls with Boughs of Holly", "Mairzy Doats" and "I Want a Hippopotamus for Christmas".
■    In 1983, a group called the Jump 'N the Saddle Band recorded a track called "The Curly Shuffle", which featured the narrator singing about his love of the Stooges mixed with a chorus of many of Curly's catchphrases and sound effects. In the mid-1980s, the song became a popular mid-game hit for New York Mets fans in the Shea Stadium bleachers, who would dance in small groups to the tune whenever the song was played between innings. The music video, which featured clips of the classic Stooges shorts, was also included as a bonus feature on one of the 1984 VHS releases. Feature motion pictures
For a list of their 190 short films, see The Three Stooges filmography.
The Three Stooges also made appearances in many feature length movies in the course of their careers:
Film    Year    Moe    Larry    Curly    Shemp    Joe    Curly Joe
Soup to Nuts
Turn Back the Clock
Meet the Baron
Dancing Lady
Broadway to Hollywood
Myrt and Marge
Fugitive Lovers
Hollywood Party (cameos)
The Captain Hates the Sea (cameos)    1934    
Start Cheering
Time Out for Rhythm
My Sister Eileen (cameos)
Rockin' in the Rockies
Swing Parade of 1946
Gold Raiders
Have Rocket, Will Travel
             Stop! Look! and Laugh! (compilation)    1960    
Snow White and the Three Stooges
             The Three Stooges Meet Hercules
             The Three Stooges in Orbit
             The Three Stooges Go Around the World in a Daze
             It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World (cameos)    1963    
             4 for Texas (cameo)
             The Outlaws Is Coming
             Kook's Tour (TV pilot)
             Joe Besser never appeared with the Stooges in a feature film. Three feature-length Columbia releases were actually packages of older Columbia shorts. Columbia Laff Hour (introduced in 1956) was a random assortment that included the Stooges among other Columbia comedians like Andy Clyde, Hugh Herbert, and Vera Vague; the content and length varied from one theater to the next. Three Stooges Fun-o-Rama (introduced in 1959) was an all-Stooges show capitalizing on their TV fame, again with shorts chosen at random for individual theaters. The Three Stooges Follies (1974) was similar to Laff Hour, with a trio of Stooge comedies augmented by Buster Keaton and Vera Vague shorts, a Batman serial chapter, and a Kate Smith musical. Museum
Gary Lassin, grandson-in-law of Larry Fine, opened the Stoogeum in 2004, in a renovated architect's office in Spring House, Pennsylvania, 25 miles (40 km) north of Philadelphia. The museum-quality exhibits fill three stories 10,000 square feet (930 m2), including an 85-seat theater.[24] Peter Seely, editor of the book Stoogeology: Essays on the Three Stooges said that the Stoogeum has "more stuff than I even imagined existed." 2,500 people visit it yearly, many during the annual Three Stooges Fan Club gathering in April.[25] In other media Comic books
Over the years, several Three Stooges comics were produced.
■    St. John Publications published the first Three Stooges comics in 1949 with 2 issues, then again in 1953–54 with 7 issues.
■    Dell Comics published a Three Stooges series first as one-shots in their Four Color Comics line for five issues, then gave them a numbered series for four more issues (#6–9). With #10, the title would be published by Gold Key Comics. Under Gold Key, the series lasted through issue #55 in 1972.
■    Gold Key Comics then published the Little Stooges series (7 issues, 1972–74) with story and art by Norman Maurer, Moe's son-in-law. This series featured the adventures of three fictional sons of the Three Stooges, as sort of modern-day teen-age versions of the characters.
■    Eclipse Comics published the Three-D Three Stooges series (3 issues, 1986–1987) which reprinted stories from the St. John Publications series.[26]■    Malibu Comics did a couple of one-shot comics, reprinting stories from the Gold Key Comics in 1989 and 1991. Music
Beginning in 1959, the Three Stooges began to appear in a series of novelty records. Their first recording was a 45 rpm single of the title song from Have Rocket, Will Travel. The trio released additional singles and LPs on the Golden and Coral labels, mixing comedy adventure albums and off-beat renditions of children's songs. Their final recording was the 1966 Yogi Bear and the Three Stooges Meet the Mad, Mad, Mad Dr. No-No, which incorporated the Three Stooges into the cast of the Yogi Bear cartoons.[1]The Stooges are referenced in the video for Weird Al Yankovic's "Like a Surgeon" with a hospital PA system asked for "Dr. Howard, Dr. Fine, Dr. Howard." Radio
Sirius XM Radio aired a special about the Stooges hosted by Tom Bergeron on Friday, July 31, 2009, at 2:00PM on the Sirius Howard 101 channel. Bergeron had conducted the interviews at the age of 17 back when he was still in high school in 1971. The television host had the tapes in storage for many years and was convinced on-air during an interview with Howard Stern to bring them in and turn it into a special.
After finding "the lost tapes," Bergeron brought them into Stern's production studio. He stated that the tapes were so old that the tapes with the Larry Fine interviews began to shred as Stern's radio engineers ran them through their cart players. They only really had the one shot, and fortunately for Three Stooges fans, the tapes were saved.
"The Lost Stooges Tapes" was hosted by Tom Bergeron, with modern commentary on the almost 40-year-old interviews that he had conducted with Larry Fine and Moe Howard. At the times of these interviews, Moe was still living at home and Larry had suffered a stroke and was living in a Senior Citizen's home. Television
In addition to the unsuccessful television series pilots Jerks of All Trades, The Three Stooges Scrapbook, and the incomplete Kook's Tour, the Stooges appeared in a show called The New Three Stooges which ran from 1965 to 1966. This series featured a mix of thirty-nine live-action segments which were used as wraparounds to 156 animated Stooges shorts. The New Three Stooges became the only regularly scheduled television show in history for the Stooges.[1] Unlike other films shorts that aired on television, like the Looney Tunes, Tom and Jerry, and Popeye, the film shorts of the Stooges never had a regularly scheduled national television program to air in, neither on network nor syndicated. When Columbia/Screen Gems licensed the film library to television, the shorts aired in any fashion the local stations chose (examples: late-night "filler" material between the end of the late movie and the channel's sign-off time; in "marathon" sessions running shorts back-to-back for one, one-and-a-half, or two hours; etc.)
Two episodes of Hanna-Barbera's The New Scooby-Doo Movies aired on CBS featuring animated Stooges as guest stars: the premiere, "Ghastly Ghost Town" (September 9, 1972) and "The Ghost of the Red Baron" (November 18, 1972). There also was a short-lived animated series, also produced by Hanna-Barbera, titled The Robonic Stooges, originally seen as a featured segment on The Skatebirds (CBS, 1977–1978), featuring Moe, Larry, and Curly (voiced by Paul Winchell, Joe Baker and Frank Welker, respectively) as bionic cartoon superheroes with extendable limbs, similar to the later Inspector Gadget. The Robonic Stooges later aired as a separate half-hour series, retitled The Three Robonic Stooges (each half-hour featured two segments of The Three Robonic Stooges and one segment of Woofer And Whimper, Dog Detectives, the latter re-edited from episodes of Clue Club, an earlier Hanna-Barbera cartoon series). There are also many Stooges references in the sitcom ALF.
In the episode "Beware The Creeper" of The New Batman Adventures. the Joker retreats to his hide-out after a quick fight with Batman. He yells out for his three henchmen "Moe? Larr? Cur?" only to find that they are not there. Shortly after that, Batman comes across these three goons in a pool hall; they have distinctive accents and hair styles similar to those of Moe, Larry, and Curly. These henchmen are briefly seen throughout the rest of the season. 2000 television film
In spring of 2000, longtime Stooge fan Mel Gibson executive-produced a TV movie (The Three Stooges[27]) about the lives and careers of the comedians. Playing Moe was Paul Ben-Victor, Evan Handler was Larry, John Kassir was Shemp and Michael Chiklis was Curly. It was filmed in Australia and was produced for and broadcast on ABC. It was based on Michael Fleming's authorized biography of the Stooges, "The Three Stooges: From Amalgamated Morons to American Icons". Its unflattering portrayal of Ted Healy led Healy's son to give media interviews calling the film inaccurate. Additional errors of fact included the hints that Moe Howard was down on his luck later in life, worked as a gofer at the studio where he and his brothers had formerly worked as actors and that he never owned his own house. In reality, Moe was the most careful with his money, which he invested well. He and his wife Helen owned the comfortable house in Toluca Lake in which they raised their children.
The film regularly runs on the American Movie Classics (AMC) channel. Feature film revival
Main article: The Three Stooges (film)
A film about the Three Stooges, simply titled The Three Stooges, is currently in development with 20th Century Fox[28] and will be directed by the Farrelly Brothers. The film has been in what one critic has dubbed "development hell".[29] The Farrellys, who have wanted to make this film since 1996, have said that they were not going to do a biopic or remake, but instead new Three Stooges episodes set in the present day. The plot of the episodes is said to be an adventure that revolves around the Stooges characters.[30]The studio has had a difficult time putting together a cast to play the Three Stooges. Originally slated were Sean Penn to play Larry, Benicio del Toro to play Moe and Jim Carrey to play Curly. Both Sean Penn and Benicio Del Toro left the project but returned while no official confirmation has been made about Jim Carrey. When del Toro was interviewed on MTV News for The Wolfman, he spoke about playing Moe. He was later asked who was going to play Larry and Curly in the film and commented that he still thought that Sean Penn and Jim Carrey were going to play them, though he added "Nothing is for sure yet."[31][32] A story in the Hollywood Reporter stated that Will Sasso will play Curly in the upcoming comedy and that Hank Azaria is the front runner to play Moe.[33] Sean Hayes of Will & Grace fame has officially been cast as Larry Fine,[34] while Chris Diamantopoulos was cast as Moe.[35] On April 27, Jane Lynch joined the cast; she will be playing a nun.[36] The film will be released on April 13, 2012. Video games
Main articles: The Three Stooges (arcade game) and The Three Stooges (video game)
In 1984 Gottlieb released an arcade game featuring the Stooges trying to find three kidnapped brides. Later in 1987, game developers Cinemaware released a successful Three Stooges computer game, available for Apple IIGS, Amiga, Commodore 64, MS-DOS, and Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). Based on the Stooges earning money by doing odd jobs to prevent the foreclosure of an orphanage, it incorporated audio from the original films and was popular enough to be reissued for the Game Boy Advance in 2002, as well as for PlayStation in 2004.[37] In foreign languages
In most other languages, the Three Stooges are known by their English name. However, in Chinese, the trio is known as Sānge Chòu Píjiàng (三個臭皮匠)[38] or Huóbǎo Sānrénzǔ (活寶三人組). Sānge Chòu Píjiàng, literally "Three Smelly Shoemakers", derives from a saying in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms: Sāngè chòu píjiàng shèngguò yīgè Zhūgě Liàng (三個臭皮匠,勝過一個諸葛亮) or "Three smelly shoemakers (are enough to) overcome one Zhuge Liang [a hero of the story]", i.e. three inferior people can overpower a superior person when they combine their strength. Huóbǎo Sānrénzǔ translates as "Trio of Buffoons".[39]In Japanese they are known as San Baka Taishō (三ばか大将)[40] meaning "Three Idiot Generals" or "Three Baka Generals". The Japanese term baka (馬鹿, "fool" or "idiot", lit. "horse deer") is associated with the Chinese idiom zhǐlù wéimǎ (指鹿為馬; lit. "point at a deer and call it a horse", in Japanese shika o sashite uma to nasu [鹿を指して馬と為す]) meaning "deliberate misrepresentation for ulterior purposes". In Spanish they are known as Los tres chiflados[41] or, roughly, "The Three Crackpots". In French and German usage, the name of the trio is partially translated as Les Trois Stooges and Die drei Stooges respectively. In Thai, the trio is known as 3 สมุนจอมป่วน (3 Samunčhǭmpūan; IPA: [sà mun tɕɔːm pùːan]) or 3 พี่น้องจอมยุ่ง (Phīnǭngčhǭmyung; IPA: [pʰîː nɔ́ːŋ tɕɔːm jûŋ]). In Portuguese, they are known as Os Três Patetas in Brazil, and Os Três Estarolas in Portugal, being "estarola" a direct translation to "stooge", while "pateta" being more related to "goofy". See also
■    The Three Stooges in popular culture References
1.    ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Maurer, Joan Howard; Jeff Lenburg, Greg Lenburg (1982). The Three Stooges Scrapbook. Citadel Press. pp. 73, 87, 179–193. ISBN 0806509465.
2.    ^ a b c d e f g h Fleming, Michael (1999). The Three Stooges: An Illustrated History, From Amalgamated Morons to American Icons. Broadway Publishing. pp. 22, 21, 23, 25, 33, 49, 50. ISBN 0767905567.
3.    ^ a b c d Howard, Moe (1977, rev. 1979). Moe Howard and the Three Stooges. Broadway Publishing. pp. 54, 73, 101. ISBN 978-0806507231.
4.    ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Okuda, Ted; Watz, Edward (1986). The Columbia Comedy Shorts. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. pp. 60–102, 237–239. ISBN 0899501818.
5.    ^ a b Solomon, Jon. (2002) The Complete Three Stooges: The Official Filmography and Three Stooges Companion, pp. 318, 510; Comedy III Productions, Inc., ISBN 0-9711868-0-4
6.    ^ "Newspaper article about the anti-fascist short You Nazty Spy".
7.    ^ archival audio – "E Entertainment", May 2002
8.    ^ a b Forrester, Jeff (2004). The Three Stooges: The Triumphs and Tragedies of the Most Popular Comedy Team of All Time. Donaldson Books. pp. 121, 135. ISBN 0971580103.
9.    ^ Grossman, Gary H. Saturday Morning TV, Dell Publishing, 1981
10.    ^ Liberty - Google Books. 1976. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
11.    ^ "Curly vs Shemp". Democratic Underground. Retrieved 2011-02-20.
12.    ^ "The Canteen". The Canteen. 1955-11-23. Retrieved 2011-02-20.
13.    ^ "Pop Culture Addict". Pop Culture Addict. Retrieved 2011-02-20.
14.    ^ The Making of the Stooges VHS Documentary, narrated by Steve Allen (1984)
15.    ^ Associated Press (December 8, 1994). "A Stooge's Heirs Ordered to Pay Heirs of Others". The New York Times. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
16.    ^ "C3 website".
17.    ^ " review".
18.    ^ "review". Retrieved 2011-02-20.
19.    ^ " review".
20.    ^ The Three Stooges Collection, Vol. 4 Press Release
21.    ^ "". 2008-12-30. Retrieved 2011-02-20.
22.    ^ "The Three Stooges Collection, Vol. 6 (1949 - 1951)". 2009-06-16. Retrieved 2010-07-10.
23.    ^ " Blog: The Three Stooges, Vol. 7 in November". 2009-08-25. Retrieved 2010-07-10.
24.    ^ "Get your nyuks, nyuks at the Stoogeum".
25.    ^ ", Three Stooges Museum in Pa.".
26.    ^ Three-D Three Stooges at the Grand Comics Database
27.    ^ The Three Stooges (2000) at the Internet Movie Database
28.    ^ Fleming, Mike. "Fox Sets March 14 Start For 'The Three Stooges'". Retrieved March 26, 2011.
29.    ^ Eric Ditzian. "Farrelly Brothers' Three Stooges Saga: The 13-Year Backstory". Retrieved January 26, 2010.
30.    ^ Arya Ponto. "Three Stooges Movie Not a Biopic, But New Episodes". Retrieved October 1, 2007.
31.    ^ Mark Shanahan & Meredith Goldstein (January 25, 2010). "In search of the proper Curly". Retrieved January 26, 2010.
32.    ^ Krystal Clark. "Sean Penn Returns to The Three Stooges". Retrieved January 26, 2010.
33.    ^ Brendan Bettinger. "Will Sasso Is Curly in THE THREE STOOGES; Hank Azaria and James Marsden the Frontrunners to Play Moe, and Larry will be played by Sean Hayes". Retrieved March 26, 2011.
34.    ^ Hitfix Staff. "Former 'Will and Grace' star Sean Hayes will play Larry in 'The Three Stooges'".
35.    ^
36.    ^ Jane Lynch Joins The Three Stooges
37.    ^ var authorId = "41402111" by Craig Harris (2002-04-10). "IGN: The Three Stooges Review". Retrieved 2011-02-20.
38.    ^ 約翰尼•德普西恩•潘擬出演《三個臭皮匠》. (Chinese)
39.    ^ 活宝 entry at the Hanyu Pinyin Dictionary; 三人 entry at the Hanyu Pinyin Dictionary; 组 entry at the Hanyu Pinyin Dictionary
40.    ^ 「三ばか大将」にポール・ジアマッティ決定、ジム・キャリーは降板. (Japanese)
41.    ^ Los Tres Chiflados: unos golpes más allá (Spanish)
■    Besser, Joe (with Lenburg, Jeff, and Lenburg, Greg), Not Just a Stooge (1984) Excelsior Books, Inc. (reissued 1987 as Once a Stooge, Always a Stooge) Roundtable Publications (Autobiography of Joe Besser, including anecdotes about Abbott and Costello and Olsen and Johnson)
■    Bruskin, David N., Behind the Three Stooges: The White Brothers: Conversations with David N. Bruskin (1993) Directors Guild of America (In-depth interviews with producer-directors Jules White, Jack White, and Sam White)
■    Comedy III Productions, Inc., Pop, You’re "Poifect!": A Three Stooges Salute to Dad (2002) Andrews McMeel
■    Cox, Steve and Terry, Jim, One Fine Stooge: Larry Fine's Frizzy Life in Pictures (2005) Cumberland House Publishing
■    Davis, Lon and Davis, Debra (eds.), Stooges Among Us (2008) BearManor Media ISBN 1-59393-300-2
■    Feinberg, Morris, Larry: The Stooge in the Middle (1984) Last Gasp of San Francisco (Biography of Larry Fine, attributed to his brother but actually ghostwritten by Bob Davis)
■    Fericano, Paul, Stoogism Anthology (1977) Poor Souls Printing
■    Fine, Larry (with Carone, James), Stroke of Luck (1973) Siena Publishing Co. (Larry Fine's autobiography, transcribed from interviews toward the end of his life)
■    Flanagan, Bill, Last of the Moe Haircuts (1986) McGraw-Hill/Contemporary Books, Inc.
■    Fleming, Michael, The Three Stooges: An Illustrated History, from Amalgamated Morons to American Icons (2002) Broadway Publishing
■    Forrester, Jeffrey, The Stoogephile Trivia Book (1982) Contemporary Books, Inc.
■    Forrester, Jeffrey, The Stooge Chronicles (1981) Contemporary Books, Inc. (Comprehensive overview of the team's career; also discusses the various Ted Healy stooges)
■    Forrester, Tom, with Forrester, Jeff, The Stooges' Lost Episodes (1988) Contemporary Books, Inc. (Discussion of obscure Stooges appearances, including solo films by individual Stooges)
■    Forrester, Jeff, with Forrester, Tom, and Wallison, Joe, The Three Stooges: The Triumphs and Tragedies of the Most Popular Comedy Team of All Time (2001) Donaldson Books
■    Garner, Paul, Mousie Garner: Autobiography of a Vaudeville Stooge (1999) McFarland & Co.
■    Hansen, Tom and Forrester, Jeffrey, Stoogemania: An Extravaganza of Stooge Photos, Puzzles, Trivia, Collectibles and More (1984) Contemporary Books, Inc. (Overview of Three Stooges memorabilia)
■    Howard, Moe, Moe Howard and the Three Stooges (1977) Citadel Press (Moe Howard's autobiography, completed and released posthumously by his daughter)
■    Koceimba, Bill, with Kaufman, Eric A., and Sack, Steve, The Three Stooges Golf Spoof and Trivia Book (1999) Gazelle, Inc.
■    Kurson, Robert, The Official Three Stooges Encyclopedia: The Ultimate Knucklehead's Guide to Stoogedom, from Amalgamated Association of Morons to Ziller, Zeller, and Zoller (1999) McGraw-Hill
■    Kurson, Robert, The Official Three Stooges Cookbook (1998) Contemporary Books, Inc.
■    Lenburg, Jeff, with Maurer, Joan Howard, and Lenburg, Greg, The Three Stooges Scrapbook (1982, revised 1994, 2000) Citadel Press
■    Longley, Maximillian, The Conservative In Spite of Himself: A Reluctant Right-Winger's Thoughts on Life, Law and the Three Stooges (2007) Monograph Publishers
■    Maltin, Leonard, The Great Movie Comedians (1978) Crown Books
■    Maltin, Leonard, Movie Comedy Teams (1970, revised 1985) New American Library
■    Maltin, Leonard, Selected Short Subjects (first published as The Great Movie Shorts, 1972) Crown Books, (revised 1983) Da Capo Press
■    McGarry, Annie, The Wacky World of the Three Stooges (1992) Crescent Books
■    Maurer, Joan Howard, Curly: An Illustrated Biography of the Superstooge (1985, revised 1988) Citadel Press
■    Maurer, Joan Howard (ed.), The Three Stooges Book of Scripts (1984) Citadel Press
■    Maurer, Joan Howard and Maurer, Norman (eds.), The Three Stooges Book of Scripts, Volume II (1987) Citadel Press
■    Okuda, Ted and Watz, Edward, The Columbia Comedy Shorts (1998) McFarland & Co. (Comprehensive history of the Columbia short subject department; Stooge colleagues Edward Bernds and Emil Sitka are quoted extensively)
■    Seely, Peter and Pieper, Gail W., Stoogeology: Essays on the Three Stooges (2007) McFarland & Co.
■    Smith, Ronald L., The Stooge Fans' I.Q. Test (1988) Contemporary Books, Inc.
■    Solomon, Jon, The Complete Three Stooges: The Official Filmography and Three Stooges Companion'’ (2000) Comedy III Productions External links
■    Three Stooges Online Filmography at
■    The Three Stooges Official Website (sanctioned by C3 Entertainment, Inc. -
■    The Stoogeum (Three Stooges Museum) –
■    A Three Stooges compilation is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]■    Portrait (2009) of The Three Stooges (with Shemp) by noted illustrator Drew Friedman
■    Interview with Moe Howard on new success with the younger generation from the Ocala Star-Banner – Feb 22, 1959 accessed via Google News
■    The Three Stooges (2012) at the Internet Movie Database Original source: Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Samuel Avital

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Rating 5.00 (1 Vote)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Samuel Ben-Or Avital is a professionally trained mime artist, teacher of mime, kinesthetic awareness, and Kabbalah.

Samuel Avital was born Shmuel Abitbol in 1932,[1] in the small town of Sefrou,[2] near Fez, in the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. At the age of 14, Avital left his home in Sefrou to travel (via Algiers and France) to the newly established state of Israel.[3] There he spent the next ten years living in a kibbutz and studying physics, agronomy, theology, and theatre.[4]

In 1958, he traveled to Paris, France, to study dance and drama at the Sorbonne, as well as to study mime with the French masters, Etienne Decroux, Jean-Louis Barrault, and Marcel Marceau.[5] Avital later performed with the Compagnie de Mime under the direction of Decroux' son, Maximilien Decroux.[6]

In 1964, Avital joined his friend (and a fellow student of Etienne Decroux), Moni Yakim, in New York, performing with him in his Pantomime Theatre of New York. At the same time, he also performed off-Broadway, and later began to tour throughout North and South America.[7] In 1969, in was invited to teach in the Theater Department at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas. In 1971, he moved to Boulder, Colorado and founded Le Centre Du Silence Mime School, which has held an annual International Summer Mime Workshop ever since.[4] As an extension of this work, Avital has also developed a unique method of bodywork called, BodySpeak, for cultivating kinesthetic awareness.[8]

In recent years, Avital has begun teaching Kabbalah publicly in a series of seminars called, Gathering the Sparks, in Boulder, Colorado. Though less well known as a teacher of Kabbalah than as a mime artist, Avital was steeped in the Jewish mystical tradition from his youth and has taught a number of students privately through the years.[5] Avital is descended from of a long line of distinguished Moroccan rabbis, jurists, and poets, nearly all of whom were also learned in the secret teachings of the Kabbalah.[9]

In addition to numerous articles, Avital is the author of several books, including the classic: Le Centre Du Silence Mime Work (1975), followed by a German edition entitled, Mimenspiel (1985), Mime and Beyond: The Silent Outcry (1985), The Conception Mandala: Creative Techniques for Inviting a Child into Your Life (1992, co-authored with Mark Olsen), The BodySpeak Manual: Moving Mind and Body (2001), and The Invisible Stairway: Kabbalistic Meditations on the Hebrew Letters (2003).


  1. ^ Avital, Samuel Ben-Or. The Invisible Stairway: Kabbalistic Meditations on the Hebrew Letters. Boulder: Kol-Emeth Publishers, 2003: 258-260.
  2. ^ Rocky Mountain News, Denver, CO, Sunday, September 26, 1971, "Avital, Elfin Apostle of Silence" by William Gallo
  3. ^ The National Jewish Monthly, February 1976, "Space, Silence and Kabbala" by Myra Sklarew
  4. ^ a b The Denver Post, Denver, CO, Wednesday, November 20, 1985, "Boulder Mime Invites Audience Truly to Get Into the Act" by Arlynn Nellhaus
  5. ^ a b Rocky Mountain News, Denver, CO, Friday, December 30, 1983, "Mime’s Silent World Enhances Creativity, Increases Honesty" by Larry Brown
  6. ^ Avital, Samuel. "Mime and Beyond: The Silent Outcry" Prescott Valley, AZ: HOHM Press, 1985: 171
  7. ^ Avital, Samuel. "Mime and Beyond: The Silent Outcry" Prescott Valley, AZ: HOHM Press, 1985: 172.
  8. ^ Avital, Samuel. The BodySpeak Manual: Moving Mind and Body. Boulder: 1st Books Library, 2001.
  9. ^ Avital, Samuel Ben-Or. The Invisible Stairway: Kabbalistic Meditations on the Hebrew Letters. Boulder: Kol-Emeth Publishers, 2003: 258-265.

External links

Original source:

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Rowan Atkinson

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Rating 4.38 (8 Votes)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Birth name

Rowan Sebastian Atkinson


6 January 1955 (age 57)

Consett, Durham, England, United Kingdom


Stand up, Television, Film

Years active



Physical comedy, Satire, Black comedy


Peter Sellers, Charlie Chaplin, Jacques Tati[1]


Steve Pemberton

David Walliams


Sunetra Sastry (m. 1990)

Notable works and roles

Not the Nine O'Clock News


Mr. Bean

The Thin Blue Line

Johnny English

BAFTA Awards


Best Light Entertainment Performance

1981 Not the Nine O'Clock News

1990 Blackadder Goes Forth


Laurence Olivier Awards


Best Comedy Performance

1981 Rowan Atkinson in Revue






Rowan Sebastian Atkinson (born 6 January 1955) is a British actor, comedian, and screenwriter. He is most famous for his work on the satirical sketch comedy show Not The Nine O'Clock News, and the sitcoms Blackadder, Mr. Bean and The Thin Blue Line. He has been listed in The Observer as one of the 50 funniest actors in British comedy,[2] and amongst the top 50 comedians ever in a 2005 poll of fellow comedians.[3] He has also had cinematic success with his performances in the Mr. Bean movie adaptations Bean and Mr. Bean's Holiday and in Johnny English and its sequel Johnny English Reborn. He also starred in the film Never Say Never Again (a spy film based on the James Bond novel Thunderball) in 1983.

Early life and education

Atkinson, the youngest of four brothers, was born in Consett, County Durham, England.[4] His parents were Eric Atkinson, a farmer and company director, and Ella May (née Bainbridge), who married on 29 June 1945.[4] His three older brothers were Paul, who died as an infant, Rodney, a Eurosceptic economist who narrowly lost the United Kingdom Independence Party leadership election in 2000, and Rupert.[5][6] Atkinson was brought up Anglican,[7] and was educated at Durham Choristers School, St. Bees School, and Newcastle University.[8] In 1975, he continued for the degree of MSc in Electrical Engineering at The Queen's College, Oxford, the same college his father matriculated at in 1935,[9] which made Atkinson an Honorary Fellow in 2006.[10] First achieving notice at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in 1976,[8] while at Oxford, he also acted and performed early sketches for the Oxford University Dramatic Society (OUDS), the Oxford Revue and the Experimental Theatre Club (ETC), meeting writer Richard Curtis[8] and composer Howard Goodall, with whom he would continue to collaborate during his career.



Atkinson had starred in a series of comedy shows for BBC Radio 3 in 1978 called The Atkinson People. It consisted of a series of satirical interviews with fictional great men, who were played by Atkinson himself. The series was written by Atkinson and Richard Curtis, and produced by Griff Rhys Jones.[11]


After university, Atkinson toured with Angus Deayton as his straight man in an act that was eventually filmed for a television show. After the success of the show, he did a one-off pilot for London Weekend Television in 1979 called Canned Laughter. Atkinson then went on to do Not the Nine O'Clock News for the BBC, produced by his friend John Lloyd. He starred on the show along with Pamela Stephenson, Griff Rhys Jones and Mel Smith, and was one of the main sketch writers.

The success of Not the Nine O'Clock News led to his starring in the medieval sitcom The Black Adder, which he also co-wrote with Richard Curtis, in 1983. After a three-year gap, in part due to budgetary concerns, a second series was written, this time by Curtis and Ben Elton, and first screened in 1986. Blackadder II followed the fortunes of one of the descendants of Atkinson's original character, this time in the Elizabethan era. The same pattern was repeated in the two sequels Blackadder the Third (1987) (set in the Regency era), and Blackadder Goes Forth (1989) (set in World War I). The Blackadder series went on to become one of the most successful BBC situation comedies of all time, spawning television specials including Blackadder's Christmas Carol (1988) and Blackadder: The Cavalier Years (1988).

Atkinson's other famous creation, the hapless Mr. Bean, first appeared on New Years Day in 1990 in a half-hour special for Thames Television. The character of Mr. Bean has been likened somewhat to a modern-day Buster Keaton.[12] During this time, Atkinson appeared at the Just for Laughs comedy festival in Montreal in 1987 and 1989. Several sequels to Mr. Bean appeared on television in the 1990s, and it eventually made into a major motion picture in 1997. Entitled Bean, it was directed by Mel Smith, his former co-star from Not the Nine O'Clock News. A second movie was released in 2007 entitled Mr. Bean's Holiday. In 1995 and 1997, Atkinson portrayed Inspector Raymond Fowler in the popular The Thin Blue Line television series, written by Ben Elton, which takes place in a police station located in fictitious Gasforth.

Atkinson has fronted campaigns for Kronenbourg,[13] Hitachi electrical goods,[citation needed] Fujifilm, and Give Blood. Atkinson appeared as a hapless and error-prone espionage agent in a long-running series for Barclaycard, on which character his title role in Johnny English and Johnny English Reborn was based.

He also starred in a comedy spoof of Doctor Who as the Doctor, for a red nose day benefit.

Atkinson has also starred as the Star in a Reasonably Priced Car in the motoring show, Top Gear in July 2011, where he recorded the second fastest lap in the Kia Cee'd with a time of 1:42.2.


Atkinson's film career began in 1983 with a supporting part in the 'unofficial' James Bond movie Never Say Never Again and a leading role in Dead on Time with Nigel Hawthorne. He appeared in former Not the Nine O'Clock News co-star Mel Smith's directorial debut The Tall Guy in 1989. He also appeared alongside Anjelica Huston and Mai Zetterling in Roald Dahl's The Witches in 1990. In 1993 he played the part of Dexter Hayman in Hot Shots! Part Deux, a parody of Rambo III, starring Charlie Sheen.

Atkinson gained further recognition with his turn as a verbally bumbling vicar in the 1994 hit Four Weddings and a Funeral. That same year he was featured in Disney's The Lion King as the voice of Zazu the Red-billed Hornbill. Atkinson continued to appear in supporting roles in successful comedies, including Rat Race (2001), Scooby-Doo (2002), and Love Actually (2003).

In 2005, he acted in the crime/comedy Keeping Mum, which also starred Kristin Scott Thomas, Maggie Smith and Patrick Swayze.

In addition to his supporting roles, Atkinson has also had success as a leading man. His television character Mr. Bean debuted on the big screen in 1997 with Bean to international success. A sequel, Mr. Bean's Holiday, was released in March 2007 and this, as recently mentioned by Atkinson in 2011, was the last time he played the character.[14] He has also starred in the James Bond parody Johnny English in 2003. Its sequel, Johnny English Reborn was released on 7 October 2011.


Rowan Atkinson did live on-stage skits – also appearing with members of Monty Python – in The Secret Policeman's Ball (1979).

Rowan Atkinson appeared in the 2009 revival of the West End musical Oliver! as Fagin.[15] The production was directed by Rupert Goold. A year prior he starred in a pre-West End run of the show in Oxford, directed by Jez Bond.

Comedic style

Best known for his use of physical comedy in his trademark character of Mr. Bean, Atkinson's other characters rely more heavily on language. Atkinson often plays authority figures (especially priests or vicars) speaking absurd lines with a completely deadpan delivery.

One of his better-known trademark comic devices is over-articulation of the "B" sound, such as his pronunciation of "Bob" in a Blackadder episode. Atkinson suffers from stuttering,[16] and the over-articulation is a technique to overcome problematic consonants.

Atkinson's often visually based style, which has been compared to Buster Keaton,[12] sets him apart from most modern television and film comedies, which rely heavily on dialogue, as well as stand-up comedy which is mostly based on monologues. This talent for visual comedy has led to Atkinson being called "the man with the rubber face": comedic reference was made to this in an episode of Blackadder the Third, in which Baldrick (Tony Robinson) refers to his master, Mr. E. Blackadder, as a "lazy, big nosed, rubber-faced bastard".

Personal life

Marriage and children

Rowan Atkinson first met Sunetra Sastry in the late 1980s, when she was working as a make-up artist with the BBC.[17] Sastry is of mixed descent, being the daughter of an Indian father and a British mother.[18] The couple married at the Russian Tea Room in New York City on 5 February 1990. They have two children and live in Oundle, Northamptonshire as well as in Ipsden, Oxfordshire and in Highbury, London.[citation needed] In October 2010, his Blackadder co-star Stephen Fry confessed on The Rob Brydon Show and in his second autobiography (The Fry Chronicles) that, although he was already openly homosexual at the time, he had considered asking Sastry (who was his make-up artist) out. However, when Rowan came to him one day and asked if he could swap make-up artists because he wanted to ask Sastry out, 'all idea of [his] asking out Sunetra left [him]'.[19] Fry was best man at Atkinson's wedding in 1990. Atkinson was formerly in a relationship with actress Leslie Ash.[20]


In June 2005, Atkinson led a coalition of the UK's most prominent actors and writers, including Nicholas Hytner, Stephen Fry, and Ian McEwan, to the British Parliament in an attempt to force a review of the controversial Racial and Religious Hatred Bill, which they felt would give overwhelming power to religious groups to impose censorship on the arts.[21] In 2009, he criticised homophobic speech legislation, saying that the House of Lords must vote against a government attempt to remove a free speech clause in an anti-gay hate law.[22]


With an estimated wealth of £100 million, Atkinson is able to indulge his passion for cars that began with driving his mother's Morris Minor around the family farm. He has written for the British magazines Car, Octane, Evo, and "SuperClassics", a short-lived UK magazine, in which he reviewed the McLaren F1 in 1995.

Atkinson holds a category C+E (formerly 'Class 1') lorry driving licence, gained in 1981, because lorries held a fascination for him, and to ensure employment as a young actor. He has also used this skill when filming comedy material.

A lover of and participant in car racing, he appeared as racing driver Henry Birkin in the television play Full Throttle in 1995. In 1991, he starred in the self-penned The Driven Man, a series of sketches featuring Atkinson driving around London trying to solve his car-fetish, and discussing it with taxi drivers, policemen, used-car salesmen and psychotherapists.[23]

Atkinson has raced in other cars, including a Renault 5 GT Turbo for two seasons for its one make series. He owns a McLaren F1, which was involved in an accident in Cabus, near Garstang, Lancashire with an Austin Metro in October 1999. It was damaged again in a serious crash in August 2011 when it caught fire after Atkinson reportedly lost control and hit a tree.[24][25][26] He also owns a Honda NSX. Other cars he owns include an Audi A8,[27] and a Honda Civic Hybrid.[28]

The Conservative Party politician Alan Clark, himself a devotee of classic motor cars, recorded in his published Diaries this chance meeting with a man he later realised was Atkinson while driving through Oxfordshire in May 1984: "Just after leaving the motorway at Thame I noticed a dark red DBS V8 Aston Martin on the slip road with the bonnet up, a man unhappily bending over it. I told Jane to pull in and walked back. A DV8 in trouble is always good for a gloat." Clark writes that he gave Atkinson a lift in his Rolls-Royce to the nearest telephone box, but was disappointed in his bland reaction to being recognised, noting that: "he didn't sparkle, was rather disappointing and chétif."[29]

One car Atkinson has said he will not own is a Porsche: "I have a problem with Porsches. They're wonderful cars, but I know I could never live with one. Somehow, the typical Porsche people—and I wish them no ill—are not, I feel, my kind of people. I don't go around saying that Porsches are a pile of dung, but I do know that psychologically I couldn't handle owning one."[30][31]

He appeared in episode 4, series 17 of Top Gear in the "Star in a reasonably priced car" section, where he drove the Kia Cee'd on the test track in 1"42.2, taking first place on the board, but was later beaten by Matt LeBlanc during the second episode of the eighteenth series, with a lap time of 1"42.1.

He attended the inaugural Indian Grand Prix as a guest of McLaren.


Television appearances


Guest appearances








The Secret Policeman's Ball

Various roles

Solo skits, plus with Monty Python


Fundamental Frolics




The Secret Policeman's Other Ball

Himself & Various Roles



Dead on Time

Bernard Fripp


Never Say Never Again

Nigel Small-Fawcett

a spy film on the James Bond Novel Thunderball


The Appointments of Dennis Jennings

Dr. Schooner

Short Film

The Tall Guy

Ron Anderson



The Witches

Mr. Stringer



The Driven Man



Also Writer


Hot Shots! Part Deux

Dexter Hayman



Four Weddings and a Funeral

Father Gerald


The Lion King


Voice Only


Bean: The Ultimate Disaster Movie

Mr. Bean

Also Writer/Executive Producer


Maybe Baby

Mr. James



Rat Race

Enrico Pollini




Emile Mondavarious



Johnny English

Johnny English


Love Actually


Nominated – Phoenix Film Critics Society Award for Best Ensemble Acting


Keeping Mum

Reverend Walter Goodfellow



Mr. Bean's Holiday

Mr. Bean

Also Writer


Johnny English Reborn[32]

Johnny English

Also Executive Producer


Live comedy albums



  1. ^ "Blackadder Hall Blog » Blog Archive » Rowan Interview – no more Bean… or Blackadder". 23 August 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  2. ^ "The A-Z of laughter (part one)", The Observer, 7 December 2003. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
  3. ^ "Cook voted 'comedians' comedian'". BBC News. 2 January 2005.
  4. ^ a b Barratt, Nick (25 August 2007). "Family Detective – Rowan Atkinson". The Daily Telegraph (UK).
  5. ^ Foreign Correspondent – 22 July 1997: Interview with Rodney Atkinson, Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 27 January 2007.
  6. ^ Profile: UK Independence Party, BBC News, 28 July 2006. Retrieved 27 January 2007.
  7. ^ Mann, Virginia (28 February 1992). "For Rowan Atkinson, comedy can be frightening". The Record. Retrieved 10 December 2007.
  8. ^ a b c "BBC – Comedy Guide – Rowan Atkinson". BBC. 4 December 2004. Archived from the original on 4 December 2004. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
  9. ^ "page 6: "The donation was given in memory of Rowan Atkinson's father, Eric Atkinson, who matriculated at Queens in 1935."" (PDF). Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  10. ^ "queens iss 1" (PDF). Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  11. ^ "Pick of the Day", The Guardian, 31 January 2007.
  12. ^ a b "". Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  13. ^ mhm grax. "Kronenbourg Commercial". Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  14. ^ Wong, Tony (22 August 2007). "It's not easy being Bean". Toronto Star. Retrieved 22 August 2007.
  15. ^ "Denise Van Outen leads celebs in standing ovation as Oliver! arrives with a bang". London: BBC. 15 January 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
  16. ^ "10 Questions for Rowan Atkinson". Time. 23 August 2007. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
  17. ^ Profile: Beany Wonder, 10 June 2007, The Hindu
  18. ^ MY DELICIOUS MRS BEAN; Shy Rowan was struck dumb on chaotic first date., 7 August 1997, The Mirror
  19. ^
  20. ^ Adams, Guy (24 March 2007). "Rowan Atkinson: Comic engima – Profiles, People – The Independent". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 25 February 2011.
  21. ^ Freeman, Simon (20 June 2005). "Rowan Atkinson leads crusade against religious hatred Bill". The Times (UK). Retrieved 22 September 2009.
  22. ^ Geen, Jessica. "Rowan Atkinson attacks gay hate law". Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  23. ^ Dargis, Manohla (7 February 2005). "Rowan Atkinson: The Driven Man – Trailer – Cast – Showtimes". The New York Times.
  24. ^ Dunning, Craig (5 August 2011). "Mr Bean and Blackadder star Rowan Atkinson in hospital after McLaren F1 supercar crash". Retrieved 5 August 2011.
  25. ^ Update: TV star Rowan Atkinson in hospital following Cambridgeshire crash EveningStar
  26. ^ "Mr Bean crashes sports car". BBC News. 27 October 1999.
  27. ^ "". Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  28. ^ Wormald, Andrew (31 May 2011). "Stars & their Cars:Rowan Atkinson – Celebrity Fun | MSN Cars UK". Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  29. ^ Alan Clark Diaries (Phoenix, 1993) p. 80
  30. ^ Wormald, Andrew; Benjamin Atkinson (6 October 2005). "Stars & their Cars:Rowan Atkinson". MSN. p. 1. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  31. ^ "". Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  32. ^ Tatiana Siegel (8 April 2010). "Universal signs up for more English". Variety. Retrieved 7 April 2010.

External links

Original source:


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Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Oliver Hardy

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Rating 0.00 (0 Votes)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Born Norvell Hardy
January 18, 1892
Harlem, Georgia, U.S.

Died August 7, 1957 (aged 65)
North Hollywood, California, U.S.

Occupation Actor
Years active 1914–1955
Spouse Madelyn Saloshin (m. 1913–1921)
Myrtle Reeves (m. 1921–1937)
Virginia Lucille Jones (m. 1940–1957)

Oliver Hardy (January 18, 1892 – August 7, 1957) was an American comic actor famous as one half of Laurel and Hardy, the classic double act that began in the era of silent films and lasted nearly 30 years, from 1927 to 1955.

Early life
Oliver Hardy was born Norvell Hardy in Harlem, Georgia. His father, Oliver, was a Confederate veteran wounded at the Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862. After his demobilization as a recruiting officer for Company K, 16th Georgia Regiment, the elder Oliver Hardy assisted his father in running the vestiges of the family cotton plantation, bought a share in a retail business and was elected full-time Tax Collector for Columbia County. His mother, Emily Norvell, the daughter of Thomas Benjamin Norvell and Mary Freeman, was descended from Captain Hugh Norvell of Williamsburg, Virginia. Her family arrived in Virginia before 1635. Their marriage took place on March 12, 1890; it was the second marriage for the widow Emily, and the third for Oliver. He was of paternal English American descent and maternal Scottish American descent.
The family moved to Madison in 1891, before Norvell’s birth. Norvell’s mother owned a house in Harlem, which was either empty or tenanted by her mother. It is probable that Norvell was born in Harlem, though some sources say it was in his mother’s home town, Covington. His father died less than a year after his birth. Hardy was the youngest of five children. A traumatic moment in his life was the death of his brother Sam Hardy in a drowning accident in the Oconee River. Hardy pulled his brother from the river but was unable to resuscitate him.[1] As a child, Hardy was sometimes difficult. He was sent to Georgia Military College in Milledgeville as a youngster. In the 1905/1906 school year, fall semester (Sep-tember–January), when he was 13, Hardy was sent to Young Harris College in north Georgia. However, he was in the junior high component of that institution (the equivalent of high school today), not the two-year college which exists today.
He had little interest in education, although he acquired an early interest in music and theater, possibly from his mother’s tenants. He joined a theatrical group, and later ran away from a boarding school near Atlanta to sing with the group. His mother recognized his talent for singing, and sent him to Atlanta to study music and voice with singing teacher Adolf Dahm-Petersen, but Hardy skipped some of his lessons to sing in the Alcazar Theater, a cinema, for US$3.50 a week. He subsequently decided to go back to Milledgeville.
Sometime prior to 1910, Hardy began styling himself "Oliver Norvell Hardy", with the first name “Oliver” being added as a tribute to his father. He appeared as “Ol-iver N. Hardy” in the 1910 U.S. census,[N 1] and in all subsequent legal records, marriage announcements, etc., Hardy used “Oliver” as his first name.
Hardy’s mother wanted him to attend the University of Georgia in the fall of 1912, to study law, but there is no evidence as to whether he did.


Early career
In 1910, a movie theater opened in Hardy’s home town of Milledgeville, Georgia, and he became the projectionist, ticket taker, janitor and manager. He soon be-came obsessed with the new motion picture industry, and became convinced that he could do a better job than the actors he saw on the screen. A friend suggested that he move to Jacksonville, Florida, where some films were being made. In 1913, he did just that, where he worked as a cabaret and vaudeville singer at night, and at the Lubin Manufacturing Company during the day. It was at this time that he met and married his first wife, pianist Madelyn Saloshin.
The next year he made his first movie, Outwitting Dad, for the Lubin studio. He was billed as O. N. Hardy, taking his father’s name as a memorial. In his personal life, he was known as “Babe” Hardy, a nickname that he was given by an Italian barber, who would apply talcum powder to Oliver’s cheeks and say, “nice-a-bab-y.” In many of his later films at Lubin, he was billed as “Babe Hardy.” Hardy was a big man at six feet, one inch tall and weighed up to 300 pounds. His size placed limitations on the roles he could play. He was most often cast as “the heavy” or the villain. He also frequently had roles in comedy shorts, his size complementing the character.
By 1915, he had made 50 short one-reeler films at Lubin. He later moved to New York and made films for the Pathé, Casino and Edison Studios. He then returned to Jacksonville and made films for the Vim Comedy Company, until that studio closed its doors after Hardy discovered the owners were stealing from the payroll.[2] He then worked for the King Bee studio after they bought Vim. He worked with Charlie Chaplin imitator Billy West and comedic actress Ethel Burton Palmer during this time. (Hardy continued playing the “heavy” for West well into the early 1920s, often imitating Eric Campbell to West’s Chaplin.) In 1917, Oliver Hardy moved to Los Angeles, working freelance for several Hollywood studios. Later that year, he appeared in the movie The Lucky Dog, produced by G.M. (“Broncho Billy”) Anderson and starring a young British comedian named Stan Laurel.[3] Oliver Hardy played the part of a robber, trying to stick up Stan’s character. They did not work together again for several years.
Between 1918 and 1923, Oliver Hardy made more than forty films for Vitagraph, mostly playing the “heavy” for Larry Semon. In 1919, he separated from his wife, ending with a divorce in 1920, allegedly due to Hardy’s infidelity. The very next year, on November 24, 1921, Hardy married again, to actress Myrtle Reeves. This marriage was also unhappy and Myrtle eventually became an alcoholic.[citation needed]In 1924, Hardy began working at Hal Roach Studios working with the Our Gang films and Charley Chase. In 1925, he starred as the Tin Man in the Wizard of Oz. Also that year he was in the film, Yes, Yes, Nanette!, starring Jimmy Finlayson, who in later years would be a recurring actor in the Laurel and Hardy film series. The film was directed by Stan Laurel.[4] He also continued playing supporting roles in films featuring Clyde Cooke and Bobby Ray.
In 1926, Hardy was scheduled to appear in Get ’Em Young but was unexpectedly hospitalized after being burned by a hot leg of lamb. Laurel, who had been working as a gag man and director at Roach Studios, was recruited to fill in.[5] Laurel kept appearing in front of the camera rather than behind it, and later that year appeared in the same movie as Hardy, 45 Minutes from Hollywood, although they didn’t share any scenes together.

With Stan Laurel
Main article: Laurel and Hardy
In 1927, Laurel and Hardy began sharing screen time together in Slipping Wives, Duck Soup (no relation to the 1933 Marx Brothers’ film of the same name) and With Love and Hisses. Roach Studios’ supervising director Leo McCarey, realizing the audience reaction to the two, began intentionally teaming them together, leading to the start of a Laurel and Hardy series later that year. With this pairing, he created arguably the most famous double act in movie history. They began producing a huge body of short movies, including The Battle of the Century (1927) (with one of the largest pie fights ever filmed), Should Married Men Go Home? (1928), Two Tars (1928), Unaccustomed As We Are (1929, marking their transition to talking pictures) Berth Marks (1929), Blotto (1930), Brats (1930) (with Stan and Ollie portraying themselves, as well as their own sons, using oversized furniture sets for the ‘young’ Laurel and Hardy), Another Fine Mess (1930), Be Big! (1931), and many others. In 1929, they appeared in their first feature, in one of the revue sequences of Hollywood Revue of 1929 and the following year they appeared as the comic relief in a lavish all-color (in Technicolor) musical feature entitled The Rogue Song. This film marked their first appearance in color. In 1931, they made their first full length movie (in which they were the actual stars), Pardon Us although they continued to make features and shorts until 1935. The Music Box, a 1932 short, won them an Academy Award for best short film — their only such award.
In 1936, Hardy’s personal life suffered a blow as he and Myrtle divorced. While waiting for a contractual issue between Laurel and Hal Roach to be resolved, Hardy made Zenobia with Harry Langdon. Eventually, however, new contracts were agreed and the team was loaned out to producer Boris Morros at General Service Studios to make The Flying Deuces (1939). While on the lot, Hardy fell in love with Virginia Lucille Jones, a script girl, whom he married the next year. They enjoyed a happy, successful marriage until his death.
In the early 1940s, Laurel and Hardy made A Chump at Oxford (1940) (which features a moment of role reversal, with Oliver becoming a subordinate to a tem-porarily concussed Stan) and Saps at Sea (1940) before leaving Roach Studios. They began performing for the USO, supporting the Allied troops during World War II, and teamed up to make films for 20th Century Fox, and later MGM. Although they were financially better off, they had very little artistic control at the large studios, and hence the films lack the very qualities that had made Laurel and Hardy worldwide names. Their last Fox feature was The Bullfighters (1945), after which they declined to extend their contract with the studio.
In 1947, Laurel and Hardy went on a six week tour of the United Kingdom. Initially unsure of how they would be received, they were mobbed wherever they went. The tour was then lengthened to include engagements in Scandinavia, Belgium, France, as well as a Royal Command Performance for King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. Biographer John McCabe said they continued to make live appearances in the United Kingdom and France for the next several years, until 1954, often using new sketches and material that Laurel had written for them.
In 1949, Hardy’s friend, John Wayne, asked him to play a supporting role in The Fighting Kentuckian. Hardy had previously worked with Wayne and John Ford in a charity production of the play What Price Glory? while Laurel began treatment for his diabetes a few years previously. Initially hesitant, Hardy accepted the role at the insistence of his comedy partner. Frank Capra later invited Hardy to play a cameo role in Riding High with Bing Crosby in 1950.
During 1950–51, Laurel and Hardy made their final film. Atoll K (also known as Utopia) was a simple concept; Laurel inherits an island, and the boys set out to sea, where they encounter a storm and discover a brand new island, rich in ura-nium, making them powerful and wealthy. However, it was produced by a consor-tium of European interests, with an international cast and crew that could not speak to each other.[6] In addition, the script needed to be rewritten by Stan to make it fit the comedy team’s style, and both suffered serious physical illness during the filming.
In 1955, the pair had contracted with Hal Roach, Jr., to produce a series of TV shows based on the Mother Goose fables. They would be filmed in color for NBC.[citation needed] However, this was never to be. Laurel suffered a stroke, which required a lengthy convalescence. Hardy had a heart attack and stroke later that year, from which he never physically recovered.

In May 1954, Hardy suffered a mild heart attack. During 1956, Hardy began looking after his health for the first time in his life. He lost more than 150 pounds in a few months which completely changed his appearance. Letters written by Stan Laurel, however, mention that Hardy had terminal cancer,[7] which has caused some to suspect that this was the real reason for Hardy’s rapid weight loss. Hardy was a heavy smoker, as was Stan Laurel. Hal Roach made the statement they were a couple of "freight train smoke stacks".[citation needed] [8] Hardy suffered a major stroke on September 14, which left him confined to bed and unable to speak for several months. He remained at home, in the care of his beloved Lucille. He suffered two more strokes in early August 1957, and slipped into a coma from which he never recovered. Oliver Hardy died on August 7, 1957, at the age of 65.[9][N 2] His remains are located in the Masonic Garden of Valhalla Memorial Park Cemetery in North Hollywood. [10]Stan Laurel was too ill to go to his film partner and friend's funeral. He stated, "Babe would understand."[citation needed]

■ Hardy’s star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame is located at 1500 Vine Street, Hollywood, California.
■ The Dick Van Dyke Show episode The Sam Pomerantz Scandals, Dick van Dyke's character, Rob Petrie, and Sam Pomerantz, one of Rob's old army buddies played by Henry Calvin do their own impression of a Laurel and Hardy sketch.
■ In 1999, merchandiser Larry Harmon produced the direct-to-video film The All New Adventures of Laurel and Hardy: For Love or Mummy starring Bronson Pinchot and Gailard Sartain as the comedy duo.
■ There is a small Laurel and Hardy Museum in Hardy's hometown of Harlem, Georgia, which opened on July 15, 2000. Every year, the first Saturday in October, Oliver Hardy is celebrated and remembered with the Oliver Hardy Festival in this town.
■ Laurel and Hardy are featured on the cover of The Beatles' album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.

■ Outwitting Dad (as O.N. Hardy)
■ Casey's Birthday
■ Building a Fire
■ He Won a Ranch
■ The Particular Cowboys
■ For Two Pins
■ A Tango Tragedy
■ A Brewerytown Romance
■ The Female Cop
■ Good Cider
■ Long May It Wave
■ Who's Boss?
■ His Sudden Recovery
■ The Kidnapped Bride
■ Worms Will Turn
■ The Rise of the Johnsons (as Oliver Hardy)
■ He Wanted Work
■ They Bought a Boat
■ Back to the Farm
■ Making Auntie Welcome
■ Never Too Old
■ The Green Alarm (as O.N. Hardy)
■ A Fool There Was
■ Pins Are Lucky (as O.N. Hardy)
■ Jealous James
■ When the Ham Turned
■ The Smuggler's Daughter
■ She Married for Love
■ The Soubrette and the Simp
■ Kidnapping the Kid
■ The Honor of the Force
■ She Was the Other
■ The Daddy of Them All
■ Mother's Baby Boy
■ The Servant Girl's Legacy
■ He Wanted His Pants
■ Dobs at the Shore
■ The Fresh Air Cure
■ Weary Willie's Rags

■ The Tramps (as Oliver Hardy)
■ The New Adventures of J. Rufus Wallingford (as O.N. Hardy)
■ Ethel's Romeos
■ Charley's Aunt (as Oliver Hardy)
■ What He Forgot
■ They Looked Alike
■ Spaghetti a la Mode
■ Gus and the Anarchists
■ Cupid's Target
■ Shoddy the Tailor
■ The Prize Baby
■ An Expensive Visit (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Cleaning Time
■ Mixed Flats (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Safety Worst
■ The Twin Sister (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Who Stole the Doggies? (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Baby (as Oliver Hardy)
■ A Lucky Strike (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Matilda's Legacy (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Capturing Bad Bill
■ Her Choice
■ Cannibal King
■ It May Be You (as O.N. Hardy)
■ What a Cinch
■ Poor Baby (as O.N. Hardy)
■ Not Much Force (as O.N. Hardy)
■ The Dead Letter
■ Clothes Make the Man (as O.N. Hardy)
■ The Haunted Hat
■ Avenging Bill
■ The Simp and the Sophomores (as O.N. Hardy)
■ Babe's School Days
■ Fatty's Fatal Fun
■ Something in Her Eye
■ The Crazy Clock Maker
■ The Midnight Prowlers
■ Pressing Business
■ Love, Pepper and Sweets
■ A Janitor's Joyful Job
■ Strangled Harmony
■ Speed Kings
■ Mixed and Fixed
■ Ups and Downs

■ Bouncing Baby (as Oliver Hardy)
■ This Way Out
■ Chickens
■ Frenzied Finance
■ A Special Delivery
■ Busted Hearts
■ A Sticky Affair
■ Bungles' Rainy Day
■ One Too Many
■ Bungles Enforces the Law
■ The Serenade
■ Bungles' Elopement
■ Nerve and Gasoline
■ Bungles Lands a Job
■ Their Vacation
■ Mamma's Boys
■ The Battle Royal
■ All for a Girl
■ Hired and Fired
■ What's Sauce for the Goose
■ The Brave Ones
■ The Water Cure
■ Thirty Days
■ Baby Doll
■ The Schemers
■ Sea Dogs
■ Hungry Hearts
■ Never Again
■ The Lottery Man (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Better Halves
■ Edison Bugg's Invention
■ A Day at School
■ A Terrible Tragedy
■ Spaghetti
■ Aunt Bill
■ The Heroes
■ It Happened in Pikesville
■ Human Hounds
■ Dreamy Knights
■ Life Savers
■ Their Honeymoon
■ The Try Out
■ An Aerial Joyride (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Sidetracked
■ Stranded
■ Love and Duty
■ The Reformers
■ Royal Blood
■ The Candy Trail
■ The Precious Parcel
■ A Maid to Order
■ Twin Flats
■ A Warm Reception
■ Pipe Dreams
■ Mother's Child
■ Prize Winners
■ Ambitious Ethel
■ The Guilty Ones
■ He Winked and Won
■ He Went and Won
■ Fat and Fickle

■ The Prospectors (as Oliver Hardy)
■ The Modiste
■ Little Nell
■ The Boycotted Baby
■ The Love Bugs
■ The Other Girl
■ A Mix Up In Hearts
■ Wanted – A Bad Man
■ Back Stage
■ The Hero
■ Dough Nuts
■ Cupid's Rival
■ The Villain
■ The Millionaire
■ The Goat
■ The Fly Cop
■ The Chief Cook
■ The Candy Kid
■ The Hobo
■ The Pest
■ The Band Master
■ The Slave (as Oliver Hardy)

■ The Stranger (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Bright and Early
■ The Rogue
■ His Day Out (as Oliver Hardy)
■ The Orderly
■ The Scholar
■ The Messenger
■ The Handy Man
■ The Straight and Narrow
■ Playmates
■ Beauties in Distress
■ Business Before Honesty
■ Hello Trouble
■ Painless Love
■ The King of the Kitchen
■ He's in Again

■ Hop, the Bellhop
■ The Freckled Fish
■ Lions and Ladies
■ Soapsuds and Sapheads
■ Hearts in Hock
■ Jazz and Jailbirds
■ Mules and Mortgages
■ Tootsies and Tamales
■ Healthy and Happy
■ Flips and Flops
■ Yaps and Yokels
■ Mates and Models
■ Dull Care
■ Squabs and Squabbles
■ Bungs and Bunglers
■ The Head Waiter
■ Switches and Sweeties (as Oliver Hardy)

■ Dames and Dentists (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Maids and Muslin
■ Squeaks and Squawks
■ Distilled Love
■ Fists and Fodder
■ Pals and Pugs
■ He Laughs Last
■ Springtime
■ The Decorator
■ The Stage Hand
■ Married to Order
■ The Trouble Hunter
■ His Jonah Day
■ The Backyard

■ The Nuisance
■ The Mysterious Stranger
■ The Blizzard
■ The Bakery
■ The Rent Collector
■ The Tourist
■ The Fall Guy
■ The Bell Hop

■ The Sawmill
■ The Show
■ A Pair of Kings
■ Golf
■ Fortune's Mask (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Little Wildcat (as Oliver Hardy)
■ The Agent
■ The Counter Jumper

■ No Wedding Bells
■ The Barnyard
■ The Midnight Cabaret
■ The Gown Shop
■ Lightning Love
■ Horseshoes

■ Trouble Brewing
■ The Girl in the Limousine
■ Her Boy Friend (as Oliver N. Hardy)
■ Kid Speed (as Oliver N. Hardy)

■ Stick Around
■ Hey, Taxi!
■ Wizard of Oz (as Oliver N. Hardy)
■ Rivals (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Wild Papa
■ Fiddlin' Around (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Isn't Life Terrible?
■ Hop to It!
■ The Joke's on You (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Yes, Yes, Nanette
■ They All Fall
■ Should Sailors Marry? (as Oliver Hardy)
■ The Perfect Clown (as Oliver Hardy)

■ Stop, Look and Listen
■ A Bankrupt Honeymoon
■ Wandering Papas
■ Madame Mystery (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Say It with Babies
■ Long Fliv the King (as Oliver Hardy)
■ The Cow's Kimona (scenes deleted)
■ The Gentle Cyclone (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Thundering Fleas (as Oliver Babe Hardy)
■ Along Came Auntie (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Crazy Like a Fox (uncredited)
■ Bromo and Juliet (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Be Your Age (as Oliver Hardy)
■ The Nickel-Hopper (uncredited)

■ Two-Time Mama
■ Should Men Walk Home? (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Why Girls Say No (as Oliver Hardy)
■ The Honorable Mr. Buggs (as Oliver Hardy)
■ No Man's Law (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Crazy to Act (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Fluttering Hearts (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Baby Brother (as Oliver Hardy)
■ Love 'Em and Feed 'Em (as Oliver Hardy)

Later films
■ Barnum & Ringling, Inc. (as Oliver Hardy) (1928)
■ Choo-Choo! (as Oliver Hardy - voice only) (1932)
■ Zenobia (as Oliver Hardy) (1939)
■ The Fighting Kentuckian (as Oliver Hardy) (1949)
■ Riding High, uncredited cameo appearance (1950)

Unconfirmed film appearances
■ The Artist's Model (1916) [1]■ Terrible Kate (1917) [2]■ His Movie Mustache (1917) [3]■ Bad Kate (1917) [4]■ This Is Not My Room (1917) [5]■ Pipe Dreams and Prizes (1920) [6]■ The Perfect Lady (1924) [7]■ Roaring Lions at Home (1924) [8]■ Laughing Ladies (1925) [9]

1. ^ Actually, he was listed as "Oliver M. Hardy" (not "N"), an "electrician" at an "electric theater". He was also mistakenly listed as the "son" of Roy J. Baisden in his census listing.
2. ^ Quote: "Oliver Hardy, the fat, always frustrated partner of the famous movie comedy team of Laurel and Hardy, died early today at the North Hollywood home of his mother-in-law, Mrs. Monnie L. Jones. Mr. Hardy, who was 65 years old, suffered a paralytic stroke last Sept. 12."
1. ^ "This is Your Life", Episode December 1, 1954
2. ^ "Creator: Bletcher, Billy, 1894-1979, Title, Dates: Billy Bletcher's Vim Southern Studio motion picture photographs, 1915-1917." State Archives of Florida Online Catalog. Retrieved: October 12, 2010.
3. ^ "The Lucky Dog (1921)." Retrieved: March 20, 2010.
4. ^ Louvish 2001, p. 182.
5. ^ Evanier, Mark. "POV: Popint of View- Laurel and Hardy." Re-trieved: March 20, 2010.
6. ^ Aping, Norbert. The Final Film of Laurel and Hardy. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland, 2008. ISBN 978-0786433025.
7. ^ "Rubber Stamp- 25406-1/2 Malibu Rd., Malibu, CA - Typewritten." Letters from Stan. Retrieved: July 24, 2011.
8. ^ "The Stan Laurel Correspondence: 1957." Retrieved: March 20, 2010.
9. ^ "Oliver Hardy of Film Team Dies. Co-Star of 200 Slapstick Movies. Portly Mas-ter of the Withering Look and 'Slow Burn'. Features Popular on TV." The New York Times, August 8, 1957. Retrieved: March 20, 2010.
10. ^ "Oliver Hardy." Retrieved: March 20, 2010.
■ Louvish, Simon. Stan and Ollie: The Roots of Comedy. London: Faber & Faber, 2001. ISBN 0-571-21590-4.
■ Marriot, A.J. Laurel & Hardy: The British Tours. Hitchen, Herts, UK: AJ Marriot, 1993. ISBN 0-9521308-0-7.
■ McCabe, John. Babe: The Life of Oliver Hardy. London: Robson Books Ltd., 2004. ISBN 1-86105-781-4.

References for filmography
1. ^ "The Artist's Model at".
2. ^ "Terrible Kate at".
3. ^ "His Movie Mustache at".
4. ^ "Bad Kate at".
5. ^ "This Is Not My Room at".
6. ^ "Pipe Dreams and Prizes at".
7. ^ "The Perfect Lady at".
8. ^ "Roaring Lions at Home at".
9. ^ "Laughing Ladies at".
■ Oliver Hardy at the Internet Movie Database
■ McCabe, John. (1989). Babe: The Life of Oliver Hardy. New York: Citadel Press. ISBN 0-8065-1187-7.

External links
■ Oliver Hardy at the Internet Movie Database
■ The Laurel and Hardy Magazine Website
■ Official Laurel and Hardy Website
■ The Laurel and Hardy Forum
■ Oliver Hardy at Find a Grave
■ Free clip from Bouncing Baby (1916), made available for public use by the State Archives of Florida
■ Oliver Hardy's obituaries in the Los Angeles Times and Los Angeles Mirror-News
Original source:

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